The nature of teaching has been conceptualized and explained n countless ways, one conceptualized is that teaching is the act of providing activities that facilitate learning, another view runs likes this”Teaching is something that takes place only when learning does. No matter what the teacher is doing in her classes, if the student are not learning something significant, she is not teaching, when the student fails, the teacher fails more.
Quite similar to the two foregoing definitions is one attributed to a writer named Jacetot : To teach is to cause to learn. ” according to the conceptualization by ho howee (1970),the teacher is not a dispenser of knowledge nor a person in change of the education that goes on in the classroom. The teacher’s role, in Howee view, is one of producing the climate, providing the resources, stimulating the student to explore, investigate and seek anwer, in a rich environment, the teacher becomes a guide and facilator than a director.
An equally intersting conceptualized of teaching is the one formula by Brown Thornston(1979) who delineated certain ditinction between taeching and educational information giving, these authors consider both instructional functions essential but different from one another. Tn their view, information giving may usually be performed quite adequetly and economically through planned use of books, records and tapes, film or computers. Teaching, on contribution of the instruction as motivation, assigner, interrogation clarifier, illumination, evaluator, and director of the intellectual exchange that leads to learning.
Also worthy of our consideration the view of teaching propounced by Silberman(1966) who states that teaching is both art and science. teaching is an art because it calls for the exercise of talent and creativity and teaching is a science for it involves a reptoire of teachniques, procedures and skills that can be systematically studied and described, and therefore transmitted and improved. Science consists of knowing while art refers to doing and implies skill and aesthetic excelence. Closely related to the foregoing onceptuaization is the one held by Owen(1978) who maintains that teachers should be an artists. The humanistics movement in education has elicted the view, as exemplified by patterson(1973) who states that teaching is not the application of a system or methods, but a personal relationship according to this view, it is more important to recognize ehat kind of person the teachet is than what her system or methods is. In words, how a teacher and how a teacher acts are important than ehat she teaches.
Acts of Teaching T. Taching involves a varity of actions. Accordingly, the acts of teaching may be grouped into three categories(Greene. 1981), as folow: 1. ) Logical Acts- includes exploring, concluding, inferring, giving reason, ammasing evidences, demonstrating, defining, and comparing. 2. )Strategic Acts- include motivating, counselling, evaluating, planning, encouraging, desciplining, and questioning. 3. )Institutional Acts- include collecting money, champeroning, patrolling the hall, attending meeting. Taking attendance, consulting parents, and keeping reports.
Teaching Behavior The term teaching behavior to sets by the teacher which occur in the context of classroom integration (Flanders,1970). A scholar the nameSmith(1960) has classified such acts activities into three classes: 1. ) Linguistic Behavior includes what teacher say, since instruction is. To or considerable extent, done through speech, for instance, teachers give assignement, ask questions, comment on responses, encourage and praise, and sometimes exhost and scold. In all of these instances, teachers use specch. 2. Expressive Behavior accompanies all speech, for this type of behavior includes tone of voice, facial espression, and motions of the hands, arms, eyes, and head, or other parts of the body. These forms of expressive behaviorhave various uses:
To enphasizes certain words, To indicate humor, seriousness, irritation, approval, dissaproval, and so on. Expressive behavior is important because students learn to read its various manifestation to know what moods the teacher has, e. g; a joking mood or serious mood, and to determine whether the teacher really means what he says. 3. Performatory Behavior includes all physical activities such as writing on the blackboard, operating projectors and record players, manipulating model, using laboratory equipment, tools, machine, and other instructional materials. Basic concepts on integarating techology in instruction There is a lingering issue on how educational technology is integrated in the teaching leraning process. This is done to the fact that the mere use of the computer does not mean technology has already been integrated in instruction. For example, computer games may not relate at all to education, much less to classroom instruction.
There is a need, therefore, to provide learning on how educational technology can be applied and integrated into the teaching-leraning process. For this purpose, the definition given by pispia(1994) is helpful. Integrating technology with teaching mean the use of learning technologies to introduce, reinforce, supplement and extend skills… the difference between the classrooms of exemplary users of technology and technology users is the way their classes are condicted, In the examplay classroom, Students use of computers is a national extinction of student tools.
Following this definition, there is NO INTEGRATIVE PROCESS if for example the teacher makes student play computer games to give them a rest period during classes. Neithet is there integration, if the teacher merely teaches stuent computer skills. In the first place, the teachers of general or special subject are not computer teachnicians or computer trainors. If one is looking for external manifestation of technogy integration into instruction, here are some: 1. )There’s a change in the way classes are tradionally conducted. 2. The quality of instruction is improved to a higher level in such a way that could not been achieved without educational technolgy. 3. )There is planning by the teacher on the process of detremining how and when teachnology fit into the teaching learning process. 4. )The teacher sets instructional strategies to address specific instructional issues/problems. 5. )In sum. Technology ocupies a position (is a simple or complex way) in the instructional process. Integrating Technology in Teaching and Teacher Education: Implications for Policy and Curriculum Reform Technology has invaded the workplace, our homes and schools.
In rich industrialized nations, like the USA,computers and the Internet are abundant in schools and classrooms. According to the ‘Teachers’ tools for the 21st century’ survey, in 1999 almost all public school teachers (99%) reported having computers available somewhere in their schools and 84% of them reported having computers available in their classrooms (US Department of Education, 2000a). Furthermore, there is a rapid increase in the proportion of schools that are connected to the Internet. In 1994, 35% of US schools were online, compared to 95% in 1999 (US Department of Education, 2000b).
However, the situation regarding technology in schools is not the same in smaller countries such as Cyprus. In 1997 the International Institute for Education Planning conducted an appraisal study of the Cyprus education system. The . ndings of that study set off a series of reforms in an effort to raise the quality of education offered by the public schools system. Among these innovations were mixed ability classroom teaching, increased emphasis. Need for pedagogical shift For successful technology integration in schools, teacher education programmes play a crucial role.
Teacher preparation on technologies should provide teachers with a solid understanding of the various media, their affordances and their constraints. Such understandings can only emerge when teachers are actively involved in teaching and learning with technology across the various disciplines. The idea of teaching a separate course on computing skills, we believe, is fundamentally awed. The separate course approach is something used in teacher preparation programmes and is also the approach followed to teach computers in Cyprus high schools.
Technology skills should not be taught out of context. One can best learn how to use a computer while working on a meaningful task. Teacher preparation should not be based on training for ‘computer literacy’ but should prepare teachers for using technologies to construct, represent and share knowledge in real life authentic contexts. Teachers should not be taught about technology but how to use technology for constructing, organizing and communicating knowledge (Barron and Goldman, 1994). A long history of technology use in education shows that the . st inclination is to use new technology in the same traditional ways as the old technology (Cuban, 1986; Means, 1994). Continuing old practices with new technology will neither change nor improve education. Old curricula and pedagogical approaches should be reformed, and if necessary replaced, to take advantage of the affordances of the new media. Our conception of teaching and learning is based on a constructivist epistemology. According to constructivism, knowledge does not exist external to the learner.
Rather, individual learners construct their own meanings based on their prior experiences (Vrasidas, in press). Learning is a result of construction, collaboration, recrection and negotiation within a rich context in which learning is situated (Brown et al. , 1989). Technology has the potential to support constructivist learning and be used for active, authentic and co-operative activities (Jonassen et al. , 1999). Harasim (1996) argued that computer-mediated education facilitates educational approaches, which shift the focus from ‘knowledge transmission to knowledge building,’ (p. 05). Knowledge building results when learners interact with their peers, collaborate, discuss their ideas, form arguments and negotiate meaning. When used appropriately, technology provides a more decentralized environment where students take more control of the learning environment and become active constructors of knowledge while working on authentic tasks. Information technologies and computer networks shift the role of the teacher from knowledge transmitter to that of a facilitator who provides opportunities for interaction and meaning making to all learners.
Technologies are not deliverers of content, but tools that educators and students use to construct knowledge and share meaning. The use of technology and cultural tools to communicate, exchange information, and construct knowledge is fundamental in constructivism. Strategies for teaching and learning are not chosen to facilitate transfer of knowledge from the world to the learner’s head, but to provide tools the learner will use to create meaning.
Teachers should, therefore, be trained to use computers in ways that will allow their students to construct knowledge. Jonassen (1996) argued that technology-based learning occurs when students use computers as mindtools that enable them to represent what they know and organize their knowledge in meaningful ways. Mindtools are tools that aid and extend the user’s thinking capabilities and can be used for knowledge construction and problem solving. Some examples of mindtools include computer conferencing, databases, spreadsheets and hypermedia development tools.
Examples of projects that students can engage in using technology are building web sites, creating databases, authoring multimedia programs and developing interactive CD-ROMs. Such conceptions of technology-based teaching and learning should drive the reform efforts of teacher preparation and in-service teacher professional development. If we adopt a constructivist approach to teacher education, evaluation practices need to be reformed as well. We cannot be teaching effectively following a student-centred constructivist approach and evaluate learning using solely standardized tests.
Constructivist environments promote the creation of multiple perspectives within a variety of contexts. There is not one correct understanding and there is not one correct way of solving a problem. Students are encouraged to utilize multiple ways of solving instructional problems and justify their solutions. The creation of multiple perspectives and viewpoints calls for multiple assessment methods. Using portfolios and authentic assessment are evaluation methods appropriate to evaluate constructivist learning (Duffy and Cunningham, 1996; Jonassen, 1992).
In addition, in a teacher education course, a variety of evaluation techniques can provide information about the learners’ thinking processes, self-reflective skills, performance in completing real-world authentic tasks, and ability to identify technology solutions to instructional problems. Traditional tests can also be used but they should not be the only method of evaluation. other evaluation techniques include the collection of students’ projects and assignments, students’ self-evaluations, reflective journals and class presentations of sample lessons.
When the teacher–educator employs such evaluation techniques, she also models for prospective teachers appropriate evaluation strategies of constructivist learning. Teacher preparation and curriculum reform Technology should be an integral part of teacher preparation programmes. Research shows that teachers tend to teach the way that they were taught (Ball, 1990; Lortie, 1975). Therefore, if we expect teachers to teach in a constructivist way using technology, we need to be teaching them in constructivist ways using technology.
In a course on educational technology for teachers, the goal should not simply be to teach the use of several technology systems, their advantages and disadvantages; instead, the goal should be to provide students with opportunities to think like experts in making instructional decisions, selecting media for appropriate use, structuring learning activities and employing sound pedagogical strategies in real-life contexts. The instructor in a teacher preparation course should structure the learning environment so that she will have the opportunity to model expert behaviour to students in sound uses of technology-based teaching and learning.
It is important that the teacher–educator is an expert in technology-based learning because only then she can model to her students’ – future teachers – expert behaviour. Furthermore, teacher preparation programmes should not simply offer a course in educational technology, but also demonstrate effective use of technology in teaching teachers several other courses. Constructivist uses of technology in teaching should be modelled in the teaching of other subject matters such as mathematics education, science education and social studies.
For example, during a course in science education, future teachers should be taught with technology in ways that model appropriate technology-based learning for science education. There are numerous ways of integrating technology in teacher education since technology can provide a rich context for learning. Technology rich environments allow prospective teachers to experience real-life scenarios of classroom teaching, construct multiple perspectives and reflectIon their practice.
Several rich interactive multimedia systems exist in the market that allow students to work in groups to review video vignettes of classroom teaching, identify good practices and discuss them with their peers. At Arizona State University, the teacher preparation programmes for both in-service and pre-service teacher training on mathematics methods make extensive use of an interactive multimedia program called Mathedology (Technology Based Learning & Research, 1998). This professional development program blends pedagogical techniques and concepts with state of the art presentation and delivery mechanisms.
Its main purpose is to improve the mathematical discourse abilities of primary teachers. Mathedology is based on a digital library of classroom video depicting primary teachers teaching mathematical concepts using the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics’ (NTCM) professional standards on discourse. The program includes video episodes of elementary mathematics teachers modelling the NCTM professional standards on discourse, expert commentary in audio format, content based on the NCTM Curriculum and Evaluation Standards and animations of mathematical concepts.
Students can view the video vignettes of teachers and discuss them with peers. Mathedology provides a rich context for teachers to develop an understanding of appropriate mathematics teaching in primary schools. Such multimedia systems provide all students and teachers a common and rich context for discussion, much richer than text descriptions of settings. In addition, students can listen to teachers shown in vignettes recrection their practice and listen to what math educators and other experts have to say about the teaching strategies used in the video episodes.
Teacher professional development and policy reform All the above suggestions can help reshape teacher preparation programmes so that they can prepare teachers to integrate technology in teaching and learning. Curriculum, pedagogical and policy changes are essential for the success of reform. To effectively integrate technology in teaching, pre-service teachers need to be well prepared, but also in-service teachers need to deepen their knowledge and skills as well. In-service teachers need time to develop, master and recection technology-based learning approaches.
They need time and incentives to participate in lifelong professional development. A study showed that 82% of US teachers cited the lack of release time as the most important barrier in using computers and the Internet in the classroom (US Department of Education, 2000b). From a policy perspective, it is important to allow teachers paid time to participate in professional development activities. In the US, 90% of all training in business and government settings takes place on paid time, whereas in US public schools only 39% of teacher training takes place on paid time (Web- Based Education Commission, 2000).
In Cyprus, in-service teachers are rarely allowed to attend professional development seminars on paid time. Changing the teacher compensation structures and providing incentives can encourage teachers to participate in professional development activities throughout their careers and develop lifelong learning skills. Another policy reform that can help promote professional development is to incorporate the completion of training attended to career ladder programmes. Right now, the most important factor that in? uences ones opportunities for promotion in the Cyprus public education system is years of experience.
This needs to change if we want to value and encourage up-to-date knowledge, skills and quali. cations. In addition, a skills-based or competency-based compensation pay system might be a better way to value and reward teacher knowledge and skills. In such a system, teachers with more experience in the classroom and teachers who completed more professional development hours would get higher salaries. Such an approach can send the message to teachers that new skills are needed and valued, that the ministry is willing to compensate them for committing the time to mprove their skills, and that for schools to continue educating our children, teachers need to develop life-long learning habits which will enhance their professional knowledge. Discussion: A. )Advantages: Upgrading the quality of teaching-and-learning in schools. Increasing the capitability for student to gain mastery of lesson and courses Broadening the delivery of education outside school through non-tradional Approaches to formal and informal learning, such as open Universities andlifelong lerning to adult learners
Revolutionizing the use of technology to boost educational paradigm shifts gives importance to student-centerd and holistic-leraning. B. )Diasadvantages: Lack of Support While technology can be a great addition to the classroom, it also can be a source of frustration for both the teacher and the student. Unless the teacher is well trained in technology and can support the hardware in the classroom, a technology expert will be needed to troubleshoot problems. If schools cannot support the purchased technology, it essentially renders it useless in times of crisis or disrepair.
Additionally, technology often needs frequent maintenance to keep it in good condition for use. Inadequate Teaching Methodology Technology does not have a place in classrooms where teachers have not been adequately trained in its implementation. While technology is fun and can add interest for students, it is not fully integrated until students are learning from technology and not just with technology. In other words, using a program to achieve a learning goal is a positive thing; however, transcending the passive use of technology and moving into active use is a skill that takes a lot of time and training.
Time Lost Because connection problems, downloading issues, policing software and other difficulties can cause road blocks when implementing a lesson in the technology based classroom, teachers sometimes shy away from using it simply because of lack of time. With all of the demands on students, the amount of time spent in the classroom is more and more valuable. To lose 10 minutes a day or class period because of connectivity issues is not feasible, and it’s one important reason why technology integration often fails in schools.
Upkeep and Maintenance Expenses. Once technology is purchased for a school, the cost of upkeep and maintenance can be too great for the building to maintain. Outdated software and hardware components can be incompatible with available programs. Also, the cost of repairing broken equipment may be too expensive for school budgets. In order for a school to successfully implement technology, there must be a rolling replacement or updating plan in place to keep technology current and useful. Incompatibility Issues Many schools today have curricula and programs based on state or national assessments.
The majority of these tests and measures are paper-and-pencil based in order to make them accessible for all students and schools. Because learning with technology involves typing input into a computer, there is a disconnect between the assessments that determine government funding and the use of technology in the classroom. To adequately prepare for these tests, students need practice with authentic assessments most closely imitating those of the standardized test. Conclusion: Changing the philosophical and pedagogical assumptions of education systems require time, effort and strong political will.
Programmes developed need to be evaluated thoroughly to determine their effectiveness in preparing teachers to teach with technology. Skilled personnel are needed to develop, implement and evaluate educational technology programmes in teacher training. There is also a need for increased funding and strong determination of all parties involved; state of. cials, administrators, teachers and parents should unite their efforts for the development of serious programmes that will support education reform.