The success of dairy cooperative structure of Gujarat can also be measured in terms of its share in cattle feed market. The dairy farmers are buying the compound feed manufactured under the milk unions. As dairy is more prominent in rural areas or villages, the presence of cooperatives makes it quite easy for the farmers to buy the compound feed from the village counter of the dairy cooperative. One must be a member of the cooperative to buy feed from the cooperative.

Dairy is dominated by small holders who are keeping 2-5 animals, getting feed from the cooperatives and selling milk to the same cooperative is a boon for them. The farmer member buys feed on credit and the payment is settled by sale of milk. This helps the farmers to avoid the informal sources of credit from the moneylenders. Additionally, the feed is sold at subsidized rate.

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This also benefits the dairy farmers. Table 23 gives a brief picture of the feed production under cooperative structure in Gujarat. The total production has reached 1350 million tonnes in 2014-15. The Banaskantha based Banas dairy and Anand based Amul dairy are the front runners in feed production with about 27 and 23 percent share respectively.Table 23: Cattle Feed Factories under Milk Unions and Production (2014-15)Milk Union(Feed Brand Name) Location Per day production capacity (TPD)Production(thousand tonnes)Percent share (%)Uttam dairy (Uttam dan) Ahmedabad 100 12.42 0.

92Banas dairy (Banas dan) Banaskantha 1600 367.76 27.24Amul dairy (Amul dan) Anand 1050 313.99 23.26Sagar dairy (Sagar dan) Mahesana 1900 226.

59 16.78Panchamrut dairy (Panchamrut dan) Panchmahal 100 53.17 3.94Sabar dairy (Sabar dan) Sabarkantha 450 216.49 16.

04Sumul dairy (Sumul dan) Surat 300 137.37 10.18Vasundhara dairy (Vasundhara dan) Valsad 50 2.669 0.

20Baroda dairy (Baroda dan) Vadodara 140 19.54 1.45Total (Gujarat) 5,690 1,350 Though dairying occupies the major chunk of livestock farming in the state, non-dairy livestock farming is also prevalent. Small ruminants, which include sheep and goat is also a prime means of livelihood for many landless households in the state. The households usually have small ruminants ranging from 20 to more than 100. The animals are used for meat and wool purpose. The sheep are also used for penning purpose. Sheep Penning is a traditional practice adopted by farmers to improve the fertility of the soil.

Sheep are allowed to sit on the field the whole night. There used to be an agreement between the farmer and the sheep owner. Sheep owners are paid for the purpose either in cash or in kind. Bullock, camel, horses, donkey are used for draught purpose for carrying goods and are used as a means of transportation. Horses are also used during marriages.There are various fodder farms in the state owned by government. Regional station for forage production is located in Gandhinagar has an area of 83.

26 hectare. The station sells green fodder like lucerne, sorghum, pearl millet, oat. These are unharvested. The buyer has to harvest and payment is made on the basis of weight. Dry fodders like oat straw are also sold. Government has created.One forage research station is located in Anand under Anand Agricultural University which is engaged in research as well as sale of surplus fodder after feeding the livestock in the university farm.

Fodder seed production farms are located in Bhutvad (Rajkot) and Jampura (Patan). 12,025 Kg fodder seeds comprising of maize, oat and jowar were produced in 2014-15. The village fodder production farms are located in Tothidara (Bharuch), Kondh (Surendranagar), Gunkhadi (Tapi), Zervavra (Surat), Pathavada (Banaskantha) and Ambada (Junagadh). These farms altogether were able to produce 774 tonnes of green fodder in 2014-15.

Table 24: Government Infrastructure for Fodder DevelopmentParticulars NumberRegional Station for Forage Production 1Forage Research Station (Under State Agriculture University) 1Fodder Seed Production Farms (Under Government of Gujarat) 2Village Fodder Production Farms (Under Government of Gujarat) 6There are various government initiatives in the feed and fodder sector. The government distributes seeds to the dairy farmers in the form of minikits. Krishi Mahotasava, one of the biggest event being organized by the government of Gujarat every year include minikit distribution to few identified beneficiaries.

The minikits comprise of fodder seeds. Chaffing of dry fodder is not at all prevalent in Gujarat, which government is trying to promote by way of providing subsidy. The government is providing subsidy at the rate of 75 percent of the cost.Table 25: Government Schemes in Feed and Fodder DevelopmentInitiative/scheme Distribution (2014-15)Krishi Mahotsav Minikits 1,83,100Chaff Cutter subsidized (round wheel + hand operated) (Under ICDP/DP) 3,146In order to prevent the uneconomical cows from being slaughtered, Gaushalas and Panjrapoles are set up by many NGOs in the state. These Gaushalas and Panjrapoles have large capacity and maintain large number of animals. For instance, a panjrapole in Kutch houses around 50,000 cows.

The government of Gujarat has established Gauseva and Gauchar Vikas Board which provides various sorts of incentives to Panjrapoles and Gaushalas. There are 667 Gaushalas and 269 Panjrapoles thus making a total of 936.The feed and fodder arrangement is made in large scale in these establishments. Green fodder is purchased from far areas which are brought by big trucks daily or alternate day. Straws and husks are procured from Punjab, Madhya Pradesh where these are sold