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The Performance-Enhancing Drug Controversy Essay, Research Paper

Performance-enhancing drugs are a subject in today? s society which is presently under hot

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argument. Performance-enhancing drugs are substances which are used to excite certain

countries of the organic structure to do an athlete excel in a certain event. The most common signifier of

performance-enhancing drugs are called steroids. Harmonizing to Hank Nuwer in his book

Steroids, steroids are? & # 8230 ; compounds that are necessary for the wellbeing of many life

animals, including human existences. These include sex endocrines, bile acids, and

cholesterin? ( 15 ) . Steroids are used in the medical field to handle many complaints, and this

usage is non the usage which is presently under contention. The medical grounds are to handle

anaemia, Burnss, asthma, anorexia, enteric upsets, and much more ( Nuwer 15 ) . These

types of steroids are called cortical steroids.

But the other usage of steroids and performance-enhancing drugs is that they are

used by jocks who wish to derive an unjust advantage over their rivals, or utilize them

to maintain up with the competition since so many jocks are utilizing these types of drugs.

These drugs are taken in a assortment of ways. The two most common ways are to be taken

orally in pill signifier, or injected into the organic structure with a needle. Just a few of these

performance-enhancing drugs are Nelvar, Deca-Durabolin, Anavar, Stanzolol, Dianabol,

and Anadrol-50 ( Nuwer 17 ) . These drugs are much more unsafe than the legal

performance-enhancing drugs because the jocks take much, much more than the

recommended doses that would be prescribed by a physician. They feel that the more pills or

injections they take, the stronger, faster, and better they will be when viing, but this

is non ever true.

Performance-enhancing drugs are comparatively uncontrived today. There are non many

known fact about performance-enhancing drugs and steroids. But, there is some grounds

that shows some of these substances may be unsafe to one? s wellness. Although there is

yet to be certain and definite cogent evidence that performance-enhancing drugs and steroids may be

harmful, there have been some surveies which indicate that they can be unsafe. These

surveies have shown that steroids may hold been the ground or a major factor which caused

liver harm, myocardiopathy ( a worn out bosom ) , icterus, purpura hepatis ( blood-filled

cysts in the liver ) , and inauspicious affects on both the cardiovascular system and on the

generative system ( Meer 69 ) . These merchandises have besides been linked to doing some

types of malignant neoplastic disease. Because of these jeopardies, many performance-enhancing drugs have been

banned in certain national and international athleticss, such as the NFL, NBA, and the

Olympics. This does non intend that athletes take parting in these athleticss do non take them,


Sports is the major country in which performance-enhancing drugs are used.

Although some people use them merely to seek to do themselves look bigger and better,

most people use them to assist them to either maintain up with competition in athletic events,

or utilize them to crush the competition by an unjust advantage, normally because they want to

achieve celebrity or want to win some kind of hard currency wages. Unfortunately, it is non merely the

major jocks in pro athleticss and in the Olympics who use these drugs.

Performance-enhancing drugs are used in all degrees of competition today, whether it be in

the Olympics, in the pros, in colleges, or even in high schools. Athletes see other people

taking these drugs and winning events and breakage records, and they want to make the

same. Besides, many of these jocks are misinformed about the dangers of

performance-enhancing drugs. But on the other manus, many other jocks are cognizant of

the effects and dangers, yet they are obstinate and take them anyhow.

The Olympics have long been known for holding jocks who take steroids. For

old ages now, certain states such as the former state of East Germany and the former

U.S.S.R, every bit good as China, have been known to, or at least it has been extremely suspected,

that they contained a legion sum of jocks who have taken

performance-enhancing drugs taking up to and during Olympic competition. Currently,

there is an probe affecting the managers and jocks from East Germany who

competed in the 1976 Olympics. As Don Kardong studies in Runner? s Universe:

A German research worker & # 8211 ; seeking for grounds for a condemnable test of four

managers and two physicians accused of giving steroids and other

performance-enhancing drugs to unsuspecting jocks & # 8211 ; had discovered 10

volumes of secret Stasi constabularies files documenting the East German doping

plan. Each jock was coded by figure, and among them was # 62.

Waldemar Cierpinski. ( 72 )

Waldemar Cierpinski was a smuggler who won the endurance contest race in the 1976

Olympic gamess and therefore pushed Don Kardong to come in 4th topographic point alternatively of 3rd, doing

him lose his opportunity at celebrity and luck, and of class that coveted bronze decoration.

Should the IOC ( International Olympic Committee ) take the gold medal off from

Cierpinski and travel the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th topographic point closers up one topographic point? Will

Kardong eventually have the feeling of acquiring that decoration? Is it excessively small excessively tardily for him?

How can the IOC perchance counterbalance for the old ages of letdown that the 4th,

3rd, and 2nd topographic point closers felt? These inquiries are what the IOC have to seek to

happen the replies to. They besides have to make up one’s mind how they are traveling to manage similar

state of affairss which are bound to happen in the hereafter.

Another illustration of rip offing in the Olympics by taking banned substances is

Canadian Ben Johnson. He was disqualified from the 1988 Olympics after winning the

gold in the 100 metre elan because he tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs

which were illegal to utilize. This finally ruined his great calling, his repute, and his

bequest was everlastingly tarnished.

The sad thing about the Olympics is that the figure of people caught utilizing

performance-enhancing drugs does non even come near to the figure of people who

really utilize them. Because physicians and IOC functionaries know really small about the many

types of performance-enhancing drugs and steroids, they have yet to come up with good

ways of observing them. Harmonizing to Michael Bamberger and Don Yaeger of Sports

Illustrated, the lone ways the IOC can prove right now is to utilize urine trials, a gas

chromatograph mass spectrometer, and a high-resolution mass spectrometer ( HRMS ) , but

there are many ways to short-circuit all three of these trials ( 61 ) . This is because the thrusters of

these drugs are smarter than both the people who run the drug trials, and the drug trials

themselves. They know how to acquire past these systems, and that is why

performance-enhancing drugs are so prevailing in today? s society. First of all, even if some

jocks were tested positive by the HRMS, the IOC is really loath to move because the

HRMS is comparatively unseasoned and they are fearful of cases. Second of all, jocks can

halt utilizing some performance-enhancing drugs a short clip before a meet, sometimes as

small as 10 yearss, in order that the jock will still be stronger and better, but besides will go through

the drug trials because the chemicals will be out of his/her system. Besides, Bamberger and

Yaeger note that, ? The sophisticated jock who wants to take drugs has switched to

things we can? t trial for & # 8230 ; To be caught is non easy ; it merely happens, says Emil Vrijman,

manager of the Netherlands? doping control centre, when an jock is either improbably

sloppy, improbably stupid, or both? ( 62 ) .

Another manner to deceive drug trials is to utilize particular performance-enhancing drugs

which are made particularly for one individual to make one specific responsibility. These drugs do non

have the same chemical parts as the 1s the IOC trials for, and hence these jocks are

non normally caught. But, these drugs are highly expensive, sometimes bing the

athletes up to $ 1,500 a month ( Bamberger and Yaeger 64 ) .

There are many side affects which can ensue from the usage of

performance-enhancing drugs and steroids. For work forces, some of these side affects can

include shrinking of the testiss, a decreased sperm count, phalacrosis, the development of

chests, depression, utmost aggression, powerlessness, tumours, malignant neoplastic disease, and decease. With all


inauspicious side affects, why would jocks go on to utilize such unsafe stuffs?

That is one inquiry no 1 can yet reply.

Performance-enhancing drugs are non entirely used by work forces in these types of

activities. Women besides have been known to utilize them, particularly Chinese adult females. For

illustration, there was rather a contention in the recent National Games in Shanghai, China.

Harmonizing to Phillip Whitten of The New Republic, ? & # 8230 ; in the weight-lifting sphere entirely,

Chinese adult females eclipsed every universe record in all nine weight categories & # 8230 ; in some

weight-lifting events, the old Markss were passed by 60 lbs or more & # 8211 ; in a athletics which

normally measures universe record betterments in one- or two-pound increases? ( 10 ) .

Besides in the same article, Whitten describes how, ? & # 8230 ; antecedently unranked Chinese adult females

set two universe records, eight Asiatic records, and clocked the universe? s best clip in eight of

13 single events? ( 10 ) . It about can non be denied that these adult females were doped

up at the clip of this peculiar event, but there was no manner to turn out it by drug trials,

because it was already excessively late. Harmonizing to Whitten, FINA ( swimming? s international

regulating organic structure ) merely conducts unheralded drug trials on jocks in the top 25, and

many of the Chinese jocks were above that grade, yet still two of them broke records

( 10 ) . Therefore, about all the functionaries fundamentally know that these records are false, yet there is

nil that can be done at this point.

Another illustration of the cheating by adult females by utilizing performance-enhancing drugs

occurred merely a month subsequently at the Asiatic Games in Hiroshima, Japan. There, a surprise

drug trial was administered and eleven Chinese jocks tested positive to DHT, or

dihydrotestosterone ( Whitten 11 ) . Thus the whole state was suspended from the Pan

Pacific Championships in 1995. We can merely deduce that even more adult females are presently

utilizing these performance-enhancing drugs.

When adult females use performance-enhancing drugs, there can be many, many side

affects. These may include the growing of facial and/or organic structure hair, alterations in or surcease

of the catamenial rhythm, expansion of the button, a deepened voice, their organic structures may

go more masculine, balding and chest shrinking may happen, adult females can lose organic structure

fat, and they may do adult females to go more hungry. These are in add-on to the side

affects which are shared by both sexes which may include high blood force per unit area, H2O

keeping, depression, cholesterin jobs, infected daze, diarrhoea, uninterrupted bad breath,

bosom disease, yellowing of the eyes or tegument ( due to liver jobs ) , insomnia, foetal harm

for pregnant adult females, aggressive behaviour, AIDS ( from the usage of acerate leafs shared when

shooting performance-enhancing drugs ) and of class, decease ( Facts About Anabolic

Steroids ) . Yet, adult females are still willing to put on the line their wellness and their lives merely in order to

win a competition.

The issue refering teens and performance-enhancing drugs is a quickly turning

one. Harmonizing to Nuwer in his book Steroids, about 66 % of male high school seniors

have used anabolic steroids at least one point during their short lives so far ( 65 ) . Besides,

Nuwer says that? & # 8230 ; medical research workers believe that between one and three million young persons

and grownups have taken anabolic steroids in one signifier or another specifically to heighten their

expressions or athletic public presentations? ( 61 ) . Unfortunately, this figure has been turning every

twelvemonth since this survey was taken in the late 1980? s. And it is really possible that taking

performance-enhancing drugs at such a immature age can even convey worse side affects than

it can to to the full adult grownups. For illustration, some of the known side affects include stunted

growing, decrease in bone growing, sinew and musculus pulls ( because they have to keep up

more weight and have non been adjusted to it yet ) , and decease.

How do adolescents happen out about steroids and performance-enhancing drugs?

Very easy. They see and read intelligence all the clip which contains both legal and illegal

performance-enhancing drugs and they normally show the jocks taking them winning their

peculiar event. This gives youngsters the mentality that they will be able to win much

easier by utilizing these types of merchandises, and besides gives them the bad illustration that rip offing

is all right every bit long as you can acquire off with it.

Besides, legal performance-enhancing drugs such as creatine and androstenedione,

which may besides hold inauspicious side affects, and both of which are used by pro baseball

participant Mark McGwire, are seen as drugs that help a individual to go stronger and better,

without any of the bad consequences in which some illegal performance-enhancing drugs and

steroids can convey. ? Young jocks have heard and seen that established jocks whom

they admire utilize them [ performance-enhancing drugs ] , and they want to follow the same

winning path their heroes have trod? ( Nuwer 12 ) . Harmonizing to an article written in the

October 1998 issue of People Weekly, ? & # 8230 ; gross revenues of the steroid [ androstenedione ) are

expected to exceed $ 100 million this twelvemonth, up from $ 5 million in 1997? ( 144 ) . Many of these

gross revenues will be from younger jocks viing at the high school degree, unaware of the

dangers of this legal substance. One can do a good comparing between coffin nails and

legal performance-enhancing drugs and legal steroids. This is that they can both be

highly harmful to one? s wellness, yet they are both legal and in great demand.

Harmonizing to a New York Times study in the Providence Journal Bulletin,

? & # 8230 ; 175,000 teenage misss in the United States have reported taking anabolic steroids at

least one time within a twelvemonth of the clip surveyed & # 8211 ; a rise of 100 % since 1991? ( A12 ) . This

comparisons to the estimated 325,000 adolescent male childs who presently use steroids ( Capital of rhode island

Journal A12 ) .

Today, the criterions set upon performance-enhancing drugs and steroids in the

athletic universe are really free. Many organisations such as MLB, the NBA, the NFL and

so on have small, if any, standard drug proving for illegal substances. Although many

organisations do criminalize some of these substances, their neglect for caring about the

jocks? wellness by non implementing drug trials shows that they care instead about doing

money than they do about the well being of their participants. They would instead convey in

money from patrons than expose the great figure of people who are utilizing banned

performance-enhancing drugs. Besides, even when drug trials are administered, normally for

international competitions such as the Olympics, the trials are so basic that it is simple to

beltway the trial and acquire a negative, even if that jock had been taking illegal

performance-enhancing drugs or steroids.

One action that these organisations must take in the close hereafter is to pass a batch of

clip and money on the survey of performance-enhancing drugs and steroids. Therefore, they

would be able to come up with better ways to be able to prove jocks. These ordinances

are needed non merely to protect the jocks, but besides to convey some unity back to the

universe of athleticss. Universe records are being broken left and right by people who have had

small regard for others. These jocks care merely about themselves and make non hold plenty subject to develop and work hard, the honest manner.

August, Paul Nordstrom. Drugs and Women. New York: Chelsea House

Publishers, 1987

Bamberger, Michael and Yaeger, Don. ? Over the border ( performance-enhancing

drug usage ) . ? Sports Illustrated v86 ( April 14, 1997 ) : 60-64+ .

Day, Michael. New Scientist ( October 10, 1998 ) : 45-46.

Facts About Anabolic Steroids.

hypertext transfer protocol: //

? Hazard Alert. ? Peoples Weekly v50 no13 ( October 12, 1998 ) : 143-144.

Kardong, Don. ? Cherished Medal. ? Runners World v33 no8 ( August 1998 ) :


Meer, Jeff. Drugs and Sports. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987

Nuwer, Hank. Steroids. New York: Franklin Watts, 1990.

The New York Times. ? Steroid usage among adolescent misss on the rise, surveies find. ?

The Providence Journal Bulletin. June 6, 1999: A12

Reilly, Rick. ? Hey Mac, Do What Comes Naturally. ? Sports Illustrated v90 no9

( March 1, 1999 ) : 90.

Whitten, Phillip. ? Forcible Tactic. ? The New Republic v217 ( November 17,

1997 ) : 10+ .

Zorpette, Glen. ? Andro Angst. ? Scientific American v279 no6 ( December 1998 ) :

22+ .