The Performance-Enhancing Drug Controversy Essay, Research PaperPerformance-enhancing drugs are a subject in today? s society which is presently under hotargument.

Performance-enhancing drugs are substances which are used to excite certaincountries of the organic structure to do an athlete excel in a certain event. The most common signifier ofperformance-enhancing drugs are called steroids. Harmonizing to Hank Nuwer in his bookSteroids, steroids are? & # 8230 ; compounds that are necessary for the wellbeing of many lifeanimals, including human existences.

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These include sex endocrines, bile acids, andcholesterin? ( 15 ) . Steroids are used in the medical field to handle many complaints, and thisusage is non the usage which is presently under contention. The medical grounds are to handleanaemia, Burnss, asthma, anorexia, enteric upsets, and much more ( Nuwer 15 ) .

Thesetypes of steroids are called cortical steroids.But the other usage of steroids and performance-enhancing drugs is that they areused by jocks who wish to derive an unjust advantage over their rivals, or utilize themto maintain up with the competition since so many jocks are utilizing these types of drugs.These drugs are taken in a assortment of ways.

The two most common ways are to be takenorally in pill signifier, or injected into the organic structure with a needle. Just a few of theseperformance-enhancing drugs are Nelvar, Deca-Durabolin, Anavar, Stanzolol, Dianabol,and Anadrol-50 ( Nuwer 17 ) . These drugs are much more unsafe than the legalperformance-enhancing drugs because the jocks take much, much more than therecommended doses that would be prescribed by a physician. They feel that the more pills orinjections they take, the stronger, faster, and better they will be when viing, but thisis non ever true.Performance-enhancing drugs are comparatively uncontrived today. There are non manyknown fact about performance-enhancing drugs and steroids. But, there is some groundsthat shows some of these substances may be unsafe to one? s wellness.

Although there isyet to be certain and definite cogent evidence that performance-enhancing drugs and steroids may beharmful, there have been some surveies which indicate that they can be unsafe. Thesesurveies have shown that steroids may hold been the ground or a major factor which causedliver harm, myocardiopathy ( a worn out bosom ) , icterus, purpura hepatis ( blood-filledcysts in the liver ) , and inauspicious affects on both the cardiovascular system and on thegenerative system ( Meer 69 ) . These merchandises have besides been linked to doing sometypes of malignant neoplastic disease. Because of these jeopardies, many performance-enhancing drugs have beenbanned in certain national and international athleticss, such as the NFL, NBA, and theOlympics. This does non intend that athletes take parting in these athleticss do non take them,nevertheless.

Sports is the major country in which performance-enhancing drugs are used.Although some people use them merely to seek to do themselves look bigger and better,most people use them to assist them to either maintain up with competition in athletic events,or utilize them to crush the competition by an unjust advantage, normally because they want toachieve celebrity or want to win some kind of hard currency wages. Unfortunately, it is non merely themajor jocks in pro athleticss and in the Olympics who use these drugs.Performance-enhancing drugs are used in all degrees of competition today, whether it be inthe Olympics, in the pros, in colleges, or even in high schools. Athletes see other peopletaking these drugs and winning events and breakage records, and they want to make thesame. Besides, many of these jocks are misinformed about the dangers ofperformance-enhancing drugs.

But on the other manus, many other jocks are cognizant ofthe effects and dangers, yet they are obstinate and take them anyhow.The Olympics have long been known for holding jocks who take steroids. Forold ages now, certain states such as the former state of East Germany and the formerU.S.S.R, every bit good as China, have been known to, or at least it has been extremely suspected,that they contained a legion sum of jocks who have takenperformance-enhancing drugs taking up to and during Olympic competition.

Currently,there is an probe affecting the managers and jocks from East Germany whocompeted in the 1976 Olympics. As Don Kardong studies in Runner? s Universe:A German research worker & # 8211 ; seeking for grounds for a condemnable test of fourmanagers and two physicians accused of giving steroids and otherperformance-enhancing drugs to unsuspecting jocks & # 8211 ; had discovered 10volumes of secret Stasi constabularies files documenting the East German dopingplan. Each jock was coded by figure, and among them was # 62.Waldemar Cierpinski. ( 72 )Waldemar Cierpinski was a smuggler who won the endurance contest race in the 1976Olympic gamess and therefore pushed Don Kardong to come in 4th topographic point alternatively of 3rd, doinghim lose his opportunity at celebrity and luck, and of class that coveted bronze decoration.

Should the IOC ( International Olympic Committee ) take the gold medal off fromCierpinski and travel the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th topographic point closers up one topographic point? WillKardong eventually have the feeling of acquiring that decoration? Is it excessively small excessively tardily for him?How can the IOC perchance counterbalance for the old ages of letdown that the 4th,3rd, and 2nd topographic point closers felt? These inquiries are what the IOC have to seek tohappen the replies to. They besides have to make up one’s mind how they are traveling to manage similarstate of affairss which are bound to happen in the hereafter.Another illustration of rip offing in the Olympics by taking banned substances isCanadian Ben Johnson. He was disqualified from the 1988 Olympics after winning thegold in the 100 metre elan because he tested positive for performance-enhancing drugswhich were illegal to utilize.

This finally ruined his great calling, his repute, and hisbequest was everlastingly tarnished.The sad thing about the Olympics is that the figure of people caught utilizingperformance-enhancing drugs does non even come near to the figure of people whoreally utilize them. Because physicians and IOC functionaries know really small about the manytypes of performance-enhancing drugs and steroids, they have yet to come up with goodways of observing them. Harmonizing to Michael Bamberger and Don Yaeger of SportsIllustrated, the lone ways the IOC can prove right now is to utilize urine trials, a gaschromatograph mass spectrometer, and a high-resolution mass spectrometer ( HRMS ) , butthere are many ways to short-circuit all three of these trials ( 61 ) . This is because the thrusters ofthese drugs are smarter than both the people who run the drug trials, and the drug trialsthemselves. They know how to acquire past these systems, and that is whyperformance-enhancing drugs are so prevailing in today? s society.

First of all, even if somejocks were tested positive by the HRMS, the IOC is really loath to move because theHRMS is comparatively unseasoned and they are fearful of cases. Second of all, jocks canhalt utilizing some performance-enhancing drugs a short clip before a meet, sometimes assmall as 10 yearss, in order that the jock will still be stronger and better, but besides will go throughthe drug trials because the chemicals will be out of his/her system. Besides, Bamberger andYaeger note that, ? The sophisticated jock who wants to take drugs has switched tothings we can? t trial for & # 8230 ; To be caught is non easy ; it merely happens, says Emil Vrijman,manager of the Netherlands? doping control centre, when an jock is either improbablysloppy, improbably stupid, or both? ( 62 ) .Another manner to deceive drug trials is to utilize particular performance-enhancing drugswhich are made particularly for one individual to make one specific responsibility. These drugs do nonhave the same chemical parts as the 1s the IOC trials for, and hence these jocks arenon normally caught. But, these drugs are highly expensive, sometimes bing theathletes up to $ 1,500 a month ( Bamberger and Yaeger 64 ) .There are many side affects which can ensue from the usage ofperformance-enhancing drugs and steroids. For work forces, some of these side affects caninclude shrinking of the testiss, a decreased sperm count, phalacrosis, the development ofchests, depression, utmost aggression, powerlessness, tumours, malignant neoplastic disease, and decease.

With alltheseinauspicious side affects, why would jocks go on to utilize such unsafe stuffs?That is one inquiry no 1 can yet reply.Performance-enhancing drugs are non entirely used by work forces in these types ofactivities. Women besides have been known to utilize them, particularly Chinese adult females. Forillustration, there was rather a contention in the recent National Games in Shanghai, China.Harmonizing to Phillip Whitten of The New Republic, ? & # 8230 ; in the weight-lifting sphere entirely,Chinese adult females eclipsed every universe record in all nine weight categories & # 8230 ; in someweight-lifting events, the old Markss were passed by 60 lbs or more & # 8211 ; in a athletics whichnormally measures universe record betterments in one- or two-pound increases? ( 10 ) .Besides in the same article, Whitten describes how, ? & # 8230 ; antecedently unranked Chinese adult femalesset two universe records, eight Asiatic records, and clocked the universe? s best clip in eight of13 single events? ( 10 ) . It about can non be denied that these adult females were dopedup at the clip of this peculiar event, but there was no manner to turn out it by drug trials,because it was already excessively late.

Harmonizing to Whitten, FINA ( swimming? s internationalregulating organic structure ) merely conducts unheralded drug trials on jocks in the top 25, andmany of the Chinese jocks were above that grade, yet still two of them broke records( 10 ) . Therefore, about all the functionaries fundamentally know that these records are false, yet there isnil that can be done at this point.Another illustration of the cheating by adult females by utilizing performance-enhancing drugsoccurred merely a month subsequently at the Asiatic Games in Hiroshima, Japan. There, a surprisedrug trial was administered and eleven Chinese jocks tested positive to DHT, ordihydrotestosterone ( Whitten 11 ) .

Thus the whole state was suspended from the PanPacific Championships in 1995. We can merely deduce that even more adult females are presentlyutilizing these performance-enhancing drugs.When adult females use performance-enhancing drugs, there can be many, many sideaffects. These may include the growing of facial and/or organic structure hair, alterations in or surceaseof the catamenial rhythm, expansion of the button, a deepened voice, their organic structures maygo more masculine, balding and chest shrinking may happen, adult females can lose organic structurefat, and they may do adult females to go more hungry. These are in add-on to the sideaffects which are shared by both sexes which may include high blood force per unit area, H2Okeeping, depression, cholesterin jobs, infected daze, diarrhoea, uninterrupted bad breath,bosom disease, yellowing of the eyes or tegument ( due to liver jobs ) , insomnia, foetal harmfor pregnant adult females, aggressive behaviour, AIDS ( from the usage of acerate leafs shared whenshooting performance-enhancing drugs ) and of class, decease ( Facts About AnabolicSteroids ) . Yet, adult females are still willing to put on the line their wellness and their lives merely in order towin a competition.The issue refering teens and performance-enhancing drugs is a quickly turningone.

Harmonizing to Nuwer in his book Steroids, about 66 % of male high school seniorshave used anabolic steroids at least one point during their short lives so far ( 65 ) . Besides,Nuwer says that? & # 8230 ; medical research workers believe that between one and three million young personsand grownups have taken anabolic steroids in one signifier or another specifically to heighten theirexpressions or athletic public presentations? ( 61 ) . Unfortunately, this figure has been turning everytwelvemonth since this survey was taken in the late 1980? s. And it is really possible that takingperformance-enhancing drugs at such a immature age can even convey worse side affects thanit can to to the full adult grownups. For illustration, some of the known side affects include stuntedgrowing, decrease in bone growing, sinew and musculus pulls ( because they have to keep upmore weight and have non been adjusted to it yet ) , and decease.How do adolescents happen out about steroids and performance-enhancing drugs?Very easy. They see and read intelligence all the clip which contains both legal and illegalperformance-enhancing drugs and they normally show the jocks taking them winning theirpeculiar event. This gives youngsters the mentality that they will be able to win mucheasier by utilizing these types of merchandises, and besides gives them the bad illustration that rip offingis all right every bit long as you can acquire off with it.

Besides, legal performance-enhancing drugs such as creatine and androstenedione,which may besides hold inauspicious side affects, and both of which are used by pro baseballparticipant Mark McGwire, are seen as drugs that help a individual to go stronger and better,without any of the bad consequences in which some illegal performance-enhancing drugs andsteroids can convey. ? Young jocks have heard and seen that established jocks whomthey admire utilize them [ performance-enhancing drugs ] , and they want to follow the samewinning path their heroes have trod? ( Nuwer 12 ) . Harmonizing to an article written in theOctober 1998 issue of People Weekly, ? & # 8230 ; gross revenues of the steroid [ androstenedione ) areexpected to exceed $ 100 million this twelvemonth, up from $ 5 million in 1997? ( 144 ) . Many of thesegross revenues will be from younger jocks viing at the high school degree, unaware of thedangers of this legal substance. One can do a good comparing between coffin nails andlegal performance-enhancing drugs and legal steroids. This is that they can both behighly harmful to one? s wellness, yet they are both legal and in great demand.Harmonizing to a New York Times study in the Providence Journal Bulletin,? & # 8230 ; 175,000 teenage misss in the United States have reported taking anabolic steroids atleast one time within a twelvemonth of the clip surveyed & # 8211 ; a rise of 100 % since 1991? ( A12 ) .

Thiscomparisons to the estimated 325,000 adolescent male childs who presently use steroids ( Capital of rhode islandJournal A12 ) .Today, the criterions set upon performance-enhancing drugs and steroids in theathletic universe are really free. Many organisations such as MLB, the NBA, the NFL andso on have small, if any, standard drug proving for illegal substances. Although manyorganisations do criminalize some of these substances, their neglect for caring about thejocks? wellness by non implementing drug trials shows that they care instead about doingmoney than they do about the well being of their participants. They would instead convey inmoney from patrons than expose the great figure of people who are utilizing bannedperformance-enhancing drugs.

Besides, even when drug trials are administered, normally forinternational competitions such as the Olympics, the trials are so basic that it is simple tobeltway the trial and acquire a negative, even if that jock had been taking illegalperformance-enhancing drugs or steroids.One action that these organisations must take in the close hereafter is to pass a batch ofclip and money on the survey of performance-enhancing drugs and steroids. Therefore, theywould be able to come up with better ways to be able to prove jocks. These ordinancesare needed non merely to protect the jocks, but besides to convey some unity back to theuniverse of athleticss. Universe records are being broken left and right by people who have hadsmall regard for others.

These jocks care merely about themselves and make non hold plenty subject to develop and work hard, the honest manner.August, Paul Nordstrom. Drugs and Women. New York: Chelsea HousePublishers, 1987Bamberger, Michael and Yaeger, Don. ? Over the border ( performance-enhancingdrug usage ) . ? Sports Illustrated v86 ( April 14, 1997 ) : 60-64+ .

Day, Michael. New Scientist ( October 10, 1998 ) : 45-46.Facts About Anabolic Steroids.

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? Peoples Weekly v50 no13 ( October 12, 1998 ) : 143-144.Kardong, Don. ? Cherished Medal.

? Runners World v33 no8 ( August 1998 ) :70-73Meer, Jeff. Drugs and Sports. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987Nuwer, Hank. Steroids.

New York: Franklin Watts, 1990.The New York Times. ? Steroid usage among adolescent misss on the rise, surveies find. ?The Providence Journal Bulletin.

June 6, 1999: A12Reilly, Rick. ? Hey Mac, Do What Comes Naturally. ? Sports Illustrated v90 no9( March 1, 1999 ) : 90.Whitten, Phillip. ? Forcible Tactic.

? The New Republic v217 ( November 17,1997 ) : 10+ .Zorpette, Glen. ? Andro Angst. ? Scientific American v279 no6 ( December 1998 ) :22+ .