Traveling is a favourite interest and passion shared by many. Many national and international surveies have good proved the importance of touristry in economic prosperity and employment chance. The figure of tourer reachings to a finish has direct relationship with its local economic system and employment coevals. The clime of a topographic point and vacations play a major function in the volume of tourer reachings at a peculiar finish. The fluctuation in the tourers ‘ reaching during a twelvemonth is by and large termed as seasonal fluctuation. Merely by cognizing the existent fluctuation in the tourer reachings, a touristry merchandise can be marketed expeditiously to the mark clients.

Analysis of the seasonality in tourer visits is indispensable to optimise selling plans ‘ Return on Investment. This helps the touristry service suppliers to be after suited schemes to market their merchandises or services to the relevant clients. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the seasonal fluctuation of domestic and foreign tourers flow in one of the of import tourer finishs, Thanjavur District in the State of Tamil Nadu, India.Keywords: Tourism, Marketing, Seasonality, Thanjavur, Domestic Tourists, Foreign Tourists.

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Today touristry is recognized as one of the major industries in footings of supplying employment, income coevals, foreign exchange net incomes and regional development. Presently, travel and touristry industry employs, straight and indirectly, around 200 million people and, harmonizing to some estimations, participates in overall employment in the universe with 6-7 per cent ( Conrady and Buck, 2011 ) . All these developments extremely depend upon the figure of tourers visit at a peculiar finish. It is recognized that seasonality is one of the most typical characteristics of touristry.

Seasonality by and large indicates the phenomenon of fluctuations of demand or supply in the touristry industry. The seasonality is associated with temporal instability in the phenomenon of touristry and besides it can be explained in footings of diverse elements including Numberss and outgos of visitants, traffic of transit, and employment ( Butler, 1994 ) . Most research workers pointed out that a seasonal form is an unmanageable state of affairs ensuing in a figure of negative effects and generates cost losingss called “ Seasonal Loss ” . It besides earnestly influences all sorts of touristry supply including employment, selling, economic sciences, and direction ( BarOn, 1975 ; Laws, 1991 ) . Harmonizing to Tesone and Pizam ( 2008 ) , the form of tourer demand creates seasonal employment, instead than lasting. This signifier of employment has far-reaching effects for regional and national unemployment construction particularly in little states chiefly dependent on touristry which is highly seasonal.Seasonality is a planetary touristry phenomenon caused by impermanent motion of people. In footings of natural factors, impermanent motion takes topographic point because every state has different climatic forms ( Baron, 1973 ) .

The seasonal fluctuations may be systematic throughout the twelvemonth ( Higham and Hinch, 2002 ) and it might non merely vary within a twelvemonth but besides within a month, a hebdomad, or even a individual twenty-four hours ( Holloway, 1994 ) . Cooper et al. , ( 2005 ) has suggested that ‘Natural ‘ seasonality and ‘Institutionalised ‘ seasonality are the two basic causes of seasonality in touristry. Natural seasonality is related to the regular and repeating temporal alterations in natural phenomena at a peculiar finish, which is normally associated with clime and seasons of the twelvemonth. The typical seasonal fluctuations in clime evidently affect many recreational activities such as swimming, sun-bathing, encampment and besides the associated touristry outgos.Institutional seasonality is the consequence of spiritual, cultural, cultural and societal factors. The two of import signifier of this seasonality are the school/college holidaies and statutory vacations.

The day of the months and periods of school vacations vary well throughout the universe, and there is normally some fluctuation even within the same legal power. Many persons choose to see friends and relations, or take brief holidaies, on statutory vacations. School vacation periods dictate when households with kids can take a holiday. The timing of statutory and school vacations has a major impact on the seasonal form of touristry outgos.In India, summer holidaies start around late March and ends at about early July.

There are tonss of vacations for many Indian particular occasions. A separate holiday like Pooja vacations, Diwali vacation, Christmas/ New Year vacations are given to pupils for about 10 yearss during the festivals which typically comes after the terminal of one school term. India has about 17 public vacations, apart from the summer interruption, depends upon the regional province pupils have term interruption which is maximal two hebdomad ( Wikipedia, 2012 ) . These vacations plays a decisive function in be aftering a circuit programme in the instance of domestic tourers.


The seasonality of the tourer reaching in a finish can be characterized with the aid of the seasonal coefficients ( KSL ) . A seasonal coefficient is a step of how a peculiar season compares with the norm season which are calculated as per centum ratio between the mean degree of each month registered on a period of a few old ages ( ) and the general monthly norm ( ) :* 100The norm of each month over a period of a few old ages ( ) is obtained as an arithmetic mean of the degrees registered in the same month over the period ( in old ages ) that is being considered. The general norm ( ) is calculated as a monthly norm of the whole period. The general norm can be obtained as a ratio between the entire figure of tourers registered over the three old ages and the entire figure of months of the period ( Constantin SecA?reanu, and Daniela Firoiu, 2011 ) .

The seasonal coefficients have the belongings that their amount must be equal to their figure ( twelve for the monthly analysis ) , multiplied by a 100. In this survey, the whole period is 10 old ages that is 120 months and the amount of all the seasonal coefficients is

Profile of Thanjavur District

Thanjavur District, one of the 32 territories of the State, is situated on the East Coast of Tamil Nadu in South India. The celebrated river Cauvery washes its Bankss. Thanjavur territory stands alone from clip immemorial for its agricultural activities and is justly acclaimed as “ the Granary of South India ” , ‘the green sign of the zodiac ‘ of the South, and the “ Rice bowl of Tamil Nadu ” . The territory is really rich in touristry potency: the Big Temple, Saraswathi Mahal Library, the Palace, Navagraha temples around Kumbakonam, Airawatheeswarar Temple are few of them. Thanjavur District, good known for its temples which are the symbols of spiritualty and more significantly, of national integrating and communal harmoniousness, attracts a big figure of domestic every bit good as foreign tourers with its pilgrim’s journey, cultural, and heritage significance.The clime of this territory is monsoonic and the calendar twelvemonth has been divided into four season viz.

, Post monsoon ( January – March ) , Summer ( April – June ) , Pre monsoon ( July – September ) and Monsoon ( October- December ) ( Prince et al, 2011 ) . The month of November, December, January and February are the pleasant months in a twelvemonth with clime full of warm yearss and cool darks. From the terminal of March, the clime becomes sultry and the temperature reaches its extremum by the terminal of May and June depending upon the set of summer rain. The monsoon in the month of October brings complete alleviation. The South-West monsoon sets in June and continues till the month of September.

Seasonality in Tourist Arrivals in Thanjavur District

Thanjavur District attracts 1000000s of tourers from upcountry every bit good as from abroad throughout the twelvemonth. The entire figure of tourer reachings in each twelvemonth from 2001 to 2010 is presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Tourist ‘s visits in Thanjavur District during the period 2001-2010


Domestic Tourists

Foreign Tourists

Number of


Growth rate


Number of


Growth rate

























491558768.6985916.6Beginning: Tamil Nadu Tourist Office, Thanjavur.The monthly mean reaching of domestic and foreign tourers ‘ for the period 2001 -2010 is given in Table 2. Table 2 besides shows the computed seasonal coefficients for the reaching of the two types of tourers in Thanjavur territory. Figure 1 depicts diagrammatically the seasonality of the domestic and foreign tourer visits.

Table 2.

Monthly Mean and Seasonal Coefficients of Tourists ‘ Arrival in Thanjavur District

Calendar month


Seasonal Coefficient




























16780347877298181Beginning: Tamil Nadu Tourist Office, Thanjavur.* Total calculated for the 10 twelvemonth period 2001-2010.


1.Seasonal Coefficients of Tourist Arrivals in Thanjavur District

The entire figure of tourer ‘s visits and their distribution over the four seasons of the territory viz. , Post monsoon, Summer, Pre-Monsoon and Monsoon are given in Table 3.

The per centum portion of the domestic and foreign tourers during these seasons can be visualized through Figure 2 and 3.

Table 3. Distribution of Tourist Visits in the Four Seasons of 2001-2010


Number of tourers

Seasonal coefficient

Percentage of portion







Post Monsoon




Pre Monsoon



4568906213611891642241Beginning: Tamil Nadu Tourist Office, Thanjavur.

Figure 2. Seasonal Share of Figure 3. Seasonal Share of

Domestic Tourist Visits Foreign Tourist Visits

Consequences and Discussion

The consequences that arise from the analysis of the seasonality of the touristry activity the Thanjavur territory are synthesized as follows:During the 4th one-fourth, 41per cent of the foreign tourers visit Thanjavur territory and in first one-fourth it is 31 per cent.

The other two quarters ( 2nd and 3rd ) have witnessed really low ( 8 -20 per cent ) foreign tourers inflow. This indicates that the period from October to March ( that is the monsoon and station monsoon seasons of the twelvemonth ) is most preferable by the foreign tourers to see the finish. The seasonal factor has a favourable influence on foreign tourers in the months of December ( 181 per cent ) , November ( 175 per cent ) , January ( 149 per cent ) , February ( 128 per cent ) , October ( 135 per cent ) and September ( 110 per cent ) . The seasonal factor has unfavourably influenced the foreign tourers activity in the other two quarters ( summer and pre monsoon ) and the most decreased degree of the seasonal coefficient has been registered in the 2nd one-fourth, particularly in May ( 18 per cent ) followed by June ( 27 per cent ) and April ( 50 per cent ) .

It is observed that the peak foreign tourer reachings are witnessed from October to March with the largest reachings during the month of December. The seasonality coefficient varies from the lower limit of 18 per cent to the upper limit of 181 per cent indicates that the foreign tourer visits in Thanjavur territory is extremely seasonal and is chiefly attributed to climatic or natural seasonality.In instance of domestic tourers, 31 per cent of them prefer the 2nd one-fourth ( summer ) for their visit to Thanjavur territory. The seasonal factor has a favourable influence on domestic tourers in months of May ( 139 per cent ) , April ( 128 per cent ) , March ( 104 per cent ) , September ( 102 per cent ) and June ( 101 per cent ) . In add-on, the months July, August and December have seasonal coefficient about 100 per cent. The staying months January, February, October and November besides show a seasonal coefficient between 80 per cent and 90 per cent. Since the seasonal coefficient varies from 82 per cent to 139 per cent during the full survey period, it is inferred that the domestic tourer visits is non as extremely seasonal as that of foreign tourers.

The peak domestic tourer reachings is observed in the months of May and April followed by March, September and June with largest reaching during May which is chiefly attributed to institutional seasonality. From the per centum portion ( Table 2 ) and seasonality coefficients ( Table 3 ) of domestic tourer visits, it is inferred that Thanjavur territory has about steady influx of domestic tourers throughout the twelvemonth which might be due to the temples in Thanjavur territory which have played a important function in pulling pilgrims irrespective of the seasons. This implies that the employment and local economic system related with domestic touristry activities are non much affected by the seasonality


The first and 4th quarters of the twelvemonth together receives 72 per cent of foreign tourers.Foreign tourer visits are really hapless during the 3rd one-fourth ( i.e. ) summer season.

Domestic tourers prefer the summer season or the chief vocational period.The reaching of foreign tourer ‘s is influenced by seasonal climatic fluctuationInstitutional vacations and pilgrim’s journey are the commanding factors in the domestic tourer visitsThe seasonal coefficient varies from 82 per cent to 139 per cent in the instance of domestic tourers bespeaking more or less a steady flow throughout the twelvemonth in comparing with foreign tourers.Thanjavur territory has first-class marketing potency for pilgrim’s journey touristry. Better substructure installations at topographic points of worship would decidedly travel a long manner in pulling more pilgrims and tourers.


The Department of Tourism of Tamil Nadu authorities should emphasis on proviso of infrastructural installations and basic comfortss at pilgrim Centres in order to pull more domestic tourers.The architectural potency of Thanjavur District should be exposed through proper promotional attempts to pull both domestic every bit good as foreign tourers.

Active information Centres should be made available at of import topographic points in the territory to supply timely information to the tourers.The niche selling schemes should be framed for advancing pilgrim’s journey, cultural, and heritage touristry sections.


Tourism paves manner for regional and national development and prosperity. Though Thanjavur District is chiefly agribusiness oriented, it has high potency to develop touristry industry.

The seasonal coefficients of the domestic tourer reachings indicates that though there is seasonality fluctuation in the domestic section it is non so high as in the instance of foreign tourers. This is due to the religious attractive forces of the finish. If selling attempts are taken by the province authorities and local governments to expose the territory ‘s touristry potency to the full it will go a twelvemonth around finish in pulling both domestic and foreign tourers.