In civilized and quickly altering society, societal public assistance has become an of import map within its national development scheme. In Indonesia the term of societal public assistance can be found in Law No.11/2009 refering “ Social Welfare ” . It consists of two significance: societal public assistance as a status in which societal demand of citizens are fulfilled and societal public assistance as an organized activity ( the development of societal public assistance ) implemented in the signifier of societal services dwelling of societal rehabilitation, societal security, societal authorization, and societal protection ( Suharto 2009a ) .
Esping-Andersen ( 1990 ) identified three societal public assistance ‘s governments: ‘liberal ‘ public assistance government, ‘conservative ‘ public assistance government and ‘social democratic ‘ public assistance government. Indonesia can non in form with one of those three theoretical accounts, but the closest government to Indonesian societal public assistance policy is the conservative, where authorities is merely responsible to targeted society ( hapless society ) if the market fails ( residuary public assistance ) .
The societal public assistance jobs emerge when public policy in Indonesia is chiefly concerned with province disposal and bureaucratism personal businesss, therefore societal outgos which include societal protection and basic societal demands commissariats ( wellness, instruction, and subsidies ( beside fuel subsidy ) ) are really low compared to GDP. This instance is rather similar with the ‘productivist ‘ government where authorities relies to a great extent on economic production instead than societal policy ( Gough et al. 2004, cited in Dean 2006, pp. 31-32 ; Jacobs 2000, pp.2-4 ; Aspalter 2006, p.297 ) .
Social public assistance job in Indonesia can be seen in the Human Development Index ( HDI ) . In 2010, Indonesia ‘s HDI ranked 108 among 169 states in the universe. Compared with the index in the other ASEAN states, the rank shows that this place was far below Singapore ( 27 ) , Brunei Darussalam ( 37 ) , Malaysia ( 57 ) , Thailand ( 92 ) and Philippines ( 97 ) ( UNDP 2010, pp.143-146 ) .
The HDI is a combination index that measures the mean accomplishment in a state in three basic dimensions of human development: economic ( GDP per capita ) , wellness ( life anticipation ) and instruction ( entree to knowledge examined by grownup literacy and expected old ages of schooling ) severally ( UNDP 2010 ) . Therefore, the low HDI does non merely bespeak the failure of economic development and the low quality of human resources, but besides reveal the failure of societal public assistance policy. This information is supported by the fact that poorness is still among the most serious jobs in Indonesia.
Although the rate of poorness between 2002 and 2010 tends to diminish, the absolute figure is still well high. For case in 2009 and 2010, the figure of people populating in poorness was 32.5 million and 31.02 million, accounting for 14.1 per centum and 13.3 per centum of the entire population correspondingly ( BPS 2011 ) .
The causes of societal public assistance job in Indonesia
Sing the low HDI, high poorness rate, and as a state with assorted natural resources and comparative advantages, Indonesia shows a comparatively slow advancement in footings of societal public assistance development, instead than other ASEAN states.
There are several chief factors explicating why societal public assistance is uneffective so that Indonesia still encounters serious and multidimensional societal jobs. The first ground is related to the rule of distribution. Indonesia ‘s societal policy programmes are dominated by undertaking oriented. For case poorness relief policies ( rice for the hapless, direct hard currency transportation, and household hope plan ) depend on means-tested aiming which shows that authorities distributes the benefits and services to those who are hapless ( Dean 2006, p 64 ) . Therefore, people have to be officially hapless to hold assistance from the authorities. Furthermore, the societal public assistance policy can non forestall a household to go hapless or promote hapless households to come out from their conditions ; it is more healing instead than preventative.
The 2nd cause is finding of receivers. Indonesia has a batch of potencies that can be besides troubles or obstructions to accomplish societal public assistance. They are geographic facet and population facet. Since the most mark of the societal public assistance policy is hapless households, the Indonesian authorities, both cardinal and local, do non hold the exact informations, for illustration computerized list of persons and or families which are counted as hapless class. Furthermore, Ministry of societal personal businesss lacks the capacity to make distant countries, and besides the figure of hapless people is non comparable with the figure of authorities officers.
Third, the bing societal protection systems are really limited and it can be accessed by merely about 50 per centum of population. For case, the formal societal protection strategies such as Health insurance ( Askes ) and Social Security for Workers ( Jamsostek ) have merely protected a group of people who are working in formal sectors ( authorities establishments and private sectors ) . Furthermore, societal security aid plans, provided by both cardinal and local authorities, for people who work in informal sectors are really limited and partial.
Ministry of finance informed that in 2009 authorities outgo related to the societal protections, wellness, instruction and other subsidy were merely approximately 7 per centum of GDP ( Ministry of finance 2010, pp. 6-8 ) . This besides indicates that authorities ever maintain the revenue enhancement rate comparatively low to allow people pass their ain income for basic societal demands ( Brondolo et al 2008, p.11 ) .
The 4th cause is the economic policy merely focuses to end product growing. Spicker ( 2008, pp.109-110 ) argues that in developing states, public assistance has frequently been treated as subsidiary to economic policy, because material resources have to be generated before they can be used. The economic procedures will of course affect family either as manufacturer or consumer so they will acquire benefit from economic excess. However, this status is non wholly true, because authorities can non be able to find which families are become the participant in the economic procedures and which are still staying hapless because they can non come in the market mechanism. It is obvious that economic growing can non to the full acknowledge poorness.
The status is declining by the decentalisation system in Indonesia, where a batch of local authorities degrees are using the rule of ‘function follows money ‘ instead than ‘money follow map ‘ ( Suharto 2009a ) . As a consequence, many of them are viing to increase higher local grosss instead than supplying societal protection for the society.
Social policy solution
There are several things that should be done by authorities to decide societal public assistance policy job. First is to alter the paradigm of the development of societal public assistance. Suharto ( 2009a ) suggests that societal public assistance system should be antiphonal to the rapid and complex alteration of societal jobs. Thus the manner the societal public assistance policy is applied should see the rule of human right, democratisation and the function of civil society both in the preparation and the execution of societal policy plans.
In footings of relationship between economic policy and societal policy, both should travel together, societal policy has to back up economic development. This is a state of affairs where societal policy ought to rectify the ‘diswelfares ‘ or negative outwardnesss caused by the economic policy ( Hill 2006, p.7 ) . Since economic growing happens in a market or aggregative degree, so it can be achieved by state without affecting the hapless family in the economic procedures, hence authorities should perpetrate to the pro hapless growing policy where, the consequence of the development has to be able to make all degree of society. Profit from economic growing must be used to increase chances for people with societal jobs acquiring entree to societal services and sustainable societal protection strategies, for illustration the bing poorness decrease plans such as direct hard currency transportation ( BLT ) and household hope plan ( PKH ) can be expanded and integrated into national societal security system strategies for all citizens.
Equally good as holding the paradigm changed, the most of import solution for societal public assistance job is people empowerment. Human being is capable of development non merely an object of development. Giving the hapless households a basic instruction such agriculture, budget direction, entrepreneurship and other proficient accomplishments will open their head and animate them to be an active participant in economic activities. Furthermore, authorities has to develop their internal resources by capacity edifice. Because the attack of development demand to reflect on local potency and civilization ( Suharto 2009a ) , hence to educate authorities employees, both cardinal and local authorities, with cognition about societal resources, including local wisdom, socio-cultural values such as societal solidarity, cooperation, and trust, are really needed to optimized societal duty.
Another solution related to people authorization is to do a joint committedness with local NGO ‘s to go authorities adjunct advancing societal public assistance to the society, because authorising people with societal job can non be done by authorities attack merely, but besides by single, household member or community member attack. In this instance, local society can be trained by ministry of societal personal businesss to advance societal public assistance to people around them who have societal jobs.
Social public assistance is a chief factor in footings of poorness relief and cut downing multidimensional want. In the execution, societal public assistance policy has to be combined with other attacks such as macro economic development, employment plan, and instruction policies. Therefore, together they would cut down capableness want every bit good as encourage growing with equity and sustainability.