The series of actions taken to treat contaminated channels including water, soil and subsurface material, by converting environmental conditions to activate the growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants is called Bioremediation.
Biological treatment is a similar approach used to treat wastes including wastewater, industrial waste and solid waste. Bioremediation helps in the degrading of certain pollutants like hydrocarbon from the soil thus leaving the soil effectively detoxified.Industrailization and increased use of chemicals in maufacturing processes have resulted in the generation of a large amount of chemical waste and industrial pollutants like hydrocarbons, chlorinated solvents, metals like lead, mercury, chromium etc . These waste products are most often being dumped on the soil and this led to the soil being contaminated.
This continous dumping resulted to the extent that remediation is no longer a choice but a necessity. The effect of this contamination range slightly from harmful to potentially dangerous to the health of humans and animals.When investigating the treatment of contaminated soils, the application of biotreatment is growing rapidly.
Factors influencing this rapid growth include that the bioremediation processes are cost-efficient, safe, and nature-based.There are two ways in which bioremedation can be carried out:In situ Remediation.Ex situ Remediation.
In-situ remediation is commonly used for the remediation of soil contamintaion, its less costly due to the lack of excavation and transportation costs, but these remediation techniques are less controllable and less effective. Ex situ remediation techniques involve removing the soil from the subsurface to treat it. Ex situ and in situ techniques each have specific benefits and costs. TECHNIQUESIn situ remediation includes techniques such as bioventing, biosparging, bioslurping and phytoremediation along with physical, chemical, and thermal processes. Deliverables : Eventually a standard method of directly comparing bioremediation techniques will be developed. This paper will evaluate the benefits and costs of each techniqueEx situ thermal remediation is completed in 3 steps: soil conditioning, thermal treatment, and exhaust gas purificationInsitu techniques include bioventing and phytoremediationEX SITU REMEDIATION TECHNIQUES Ex situ remediation includes techniques such as landfarming, biopiling, and processing by bioreactors along with thermal, chemical, and physical processes. Proper evaluation of bioremediation options begins by determining what constitutes an acceptable cleanup goal; for example, one must determine whether destruction, detoxification, or physical removal of the chemical target(s) is the goal of the remediation.