The circulatory system is vital and anessential part of the human anatomy and physiology. It provides and maintainshomeostasis to the whole life system of human body existent (cardio system helpmaintain homeostasis.
EHow.media. 2010). Imagine a car engine with all itscomplexity and part, and we just focus on one main and essential part of the car system which makes it as acar we all know about and that is the engine or as we might alternatively callit the “heart of the vehicle” the piston inside the engine move as combustionoccurred as the result of mixing of air and fuel ignited by spark plug in thechamber and a small explosion in turn push the piston upward by force and thisresulted in the rotation and transferring of power to the crank shaft and thiscrank shaft, turn the car wheel so that the car be able to move and serve itpurpose as a transportation machine for human use. By this analogy we can seewhy it is called the “heart of the vehicle”, this mechanism and its ability toachieve its purpose are identical to the human heart and its system example theoxygen sensor that monitor the mixture of air and fuel in correlation to engineoutput, the oxygen sensor system existed to maintain power output and at thesame time to prevent damage to the engine which this oxygen sensor act the sameway as the baroreceptor located in the carotid sinus and the aortic arch whichresponded to the amount pressure change in the arterial wall in the humananatomy and physiology where if prolong high pressure can damage the arterialwall, and disrupt the circulation and ultimately endanger the heart, lungs,brain, kidney and nearly every part of the body (Klabunde, R.E.
, Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts.2016). The concepts are amazingly similar and it ismagnificently engineered and at the same time, it is fascinating to learn andbe able to understand such an existent and the purpose of its creation. Physical activity cannot be separatedfrom human life the cardiovascular system is relatively connected to thephysical activity.
Fatigue is an appearance respond to the duration of physicalactivity and this implementation of physical activity is both directly andnaturally the body will respond to the quality and quantity of physicalactivity which is undertaken. Such a response is part of human body demand tomeet the nutritional need in an effort to compensate the physical activityprocess and at the same time to maintain the body condition in order to achieveequilibrium, it is also called the optimum physiological response ( Arthur C.Guyton, John E. Hall.2017). The change in frequency of physical activity isbase upon the pre and post physical activity and this can be apparent dependingon the stat of the individual optimum physical condition. The physiologicalresponses are proportional to the physical activity and the responses aredifferent from one individual to another individual.
The physiological responsewhich is observed and showed the difference which is due to the body conditionduring physical activity which the body are prepared by doing routine exerciseor body condition were trained or not trained. And within this essay, we willdiscuss the finding and present the reason for the difference between a trainedathletes and a non-trained or non-athlete in taekwondo base on its anatomy andphysiology of the cardiovascular system. And A simple observation can be seen byjust the blood pressure and heart rate check of pre and post test from 2different people with a background of athlete and non-athlete. The heart rateand blood pressure are used to see the physiological response of the physicalactivity. It is also to be clear that the returned to normal physiologicalresponses are also showing the ability of the body fulfilling the optimumphysical condition. The reading of anuntrained person shows that blood pressure is pre-activity is 127/75 while158/62 (systole/diastole) for post activity and the time required for theuntrained person to restore or recover his blood pressure to normal value is 7minutes. On the other hand, the trained person reading show that his bloodpressure is for the pre-activity is 119/63 (systole/diastole) and post activityshows the blood pressure of 141/68 and the time required for the trained personto restore or recovered his blood pressure to normal value is 4 minutes.
As weall know that blood pressure is a pressure that existed when the heart contractand relaxed in a cycle and this is called as the systole and diastole pressure.Base on the statement above about the activity which is performed by thetrained and untrained person and there the physiological effect of the bloodpressure we can understand that there is a totally different on pressureexisted in both person. The heart as a pump has to pull out a stimulusrhythmically. Under the ordinary circumstance, the heart rhythm is from thepacemaker of the heart the sinoatrial node (SA node) located in the rightatrium. The SA node is responsible for the whole heart contraction function (itact like a car engine Spark Plug). And there are several factors which canaffect the rhythm of the SA node including the drop in pressure, stimulation ofincreasing temperature and other (Guyton and Hall, 2006).The increases inblood pressure mainly the systole pressure during the post activity is causedby the hormone epinephrine during a physical activity. This causes thestrengthening of the heart muscle contraction and also the effect of the bloodvessels widening (dilation), but the dilation does depend widely upon theperson condition.
If a person has arteriosclerosis the effect of epinephrine islimited on the dilation of the blood vessels, and the rises of blood pressurecan occur. Also, the sweat that isproduced is also an effect on the blood plasma and this decreases the volume ofblood and in turn, blood pressure does not rise too excessively. The trainedperson has lower blood pressure are also related to a stronger heart muscle andvalves which are functioning more effective due to his heart has beenaccustomed to physical activity in taekwondo. His ability to returned to normalblood pressure quicker compared to the untrained person is because of thetrained person blood vessels has a more elastic vessel wall and thus a trainedperson has a higher elasticity blood vessels than an untrained person.