The circulatory system is vital and an
essential part of the human anatomy and physiology. It provides and maintains
homeostasis to the whole life system of human body existent (cardio system help
maintain homeostasis. EHow.media. 2010). Imagine a car engine with all its
complexity and part, and we just focus on one main and essential  part of the car system which makes it as a
car we all know about and that is the engine or as we might alternatively call
it the “heart of the vehicle” the piston inside the engine move as combustion
occurred as the result of mixing of air and fuel ignited by spark plug in the
chamber and a small explosion in turn push the piston upward by force and this
resulted in the rotation and transferring of power to the crank shaft and this
crank shaft, turn the car wheel so that the car be able to move and serve it
purpose as a transportation machine for human use. By this analogy we can see
why it is called the “heart of the vehicle”, this mechanism and its ability to
achieve its purpose are identical to the human heart and its system example the
oxygen sensor that monitor the mixture of air and fuel in correlation to engine
output, the oxygen sensor system existed to maintain power output and at the
same time to prevent damage to the engine which this oxygen sensor act the same
way as the baroreceptor located in the carotid sinus and the aortic arch which
responded to the amount pressure change in the arterial wall in the human
anatomy and physiology where if prolong high pressure can damage the arterial
wall, and disrupt the circulation and ultimately endanger the heart, lungs,
brain, kidney and nearly every part of the body (Klabunde, R.E., Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts.2016). The concepts are amazingly similar and it is
magnificently engineered and at the same time, it is fascinating to learn and
be able to understand such an existent and the purpose of its creation.

Physical activity cannot be separated
from human life the cardiovascular system is relatively connected to the
physical activity. Fatigue is an appearance respond to the duration of physical
activity and this implementation of physical activity is both directly and
naturally the body will respond to the quality and quantity of physical
activity which is undertaken. Such a response is part of human body demand to
meet the nutritional need in an effort to compensate the physical activity
process and at the same time to maintain the body condition in order to achieve
equilibrium, it is also called the optimum physiological response ( Arthur C.
Guyton, John E. Hall.2017). The change in frequency of physical activity is
base upon the pre and post physical activity and this can be apparent depending
on the stat of the individual optimum physical condition. The physiological
responses are proportional to the physical activity and the responses are
different from one individual to another individual. The physiological response
which is observed and showed the difference which is due to the body condition
during physical activity which the body are prepared by doing routine exercise
or body condition were trained or not trained. And within this essay, we will
discuss the finding and present the reason for the difference between a trained
athletes and a non-trained or non-athlete in taekwondo base on its anatomy and
physiology of the cardiovascular system. And

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A simple observation can be seen by
just the blood pressure and heart rate check of pre and post test from 2
different people with a background of athlete and non-athlete. The heart rate
and blood pressure are used to see the physiological response of the physical
activity. It is also to be clear that the returned to normal physiological
responses are also showing the ability of the body fulfilling the optimum
physical condition.  The reading of an
untrained person shows that blood pressure is pre-activity is 127/75 while
158/62 (systole/diastole) for post activity and the time required for the
untrained person to restore or recover his blood pressure to normal value is 7
minutes. On the other hand, the trained person reading show that his blood
pressure is for the pre-activity is 119/63 (systole/diastole) and post activity
shows the blood pressure of 141/68 and the time required for the trained person
to restore or recovered his blood pressure to normal value is 4 minutes. As we
all know that blood pressure is a pressure that existed when the heart contract
and relaxed in a cycle and this is called as the systole and diastole pressure.
Base on the statement above about the activity which is performed by the
trained and untrained person and there the physiological effect of the blood
pressure we can understand that there is a totally different on pressure
existed in both person. The heart as a pump has to pull out a stimulus
rhythmically. Under the ordinary circumstance, the heart rhythm is from the
pacemaker of the heart the sinoatrial node (SA node) located in the right
atrium. The SA node is responsible for the whole heart contraction function (it
act like a car engine Spark Plug). And there are several factors which can
affect the rhythm of the SA node including the drop in pressure, stimulation of
increasing temperature and other (Guyton and Hall, 2006).

The increases in
blood pressure mainly the systole pressure during the post activity is caused
by the hormone epinephrine during a physical activity. This causes the
strengthening of the heart muscle contraction and also the effect of the blood
vessels widening (dilation), but the dilation does depend widely upon the
person condition. If a person has arteriosclerosis the effect of epinephrine is
limited on the dilation of the blood vessels, and the rises of blood pressure
can occur.   Also, the sweat that is
produced is also an effect on the blood plasma and this decreases the volume of
blood and in turn, blood pressure does not rise too excessively. The trained
person has lower blood pressure are also related to a stronger heart muscle and
valves which are functioning more effective due to his heart has been
accustomed to physical activity in taekwondo. His ability to returned to normal
blood pressure quicker compared to the untrained person is because of the
trained person blood vessels has a more elastic vessel wall and thus a trained
person has a higher elasticity blood vessels than an untrained person.