The Sydney opera house is one of the world’s mostrecognisable and unforgettable  concreteframed buildings in the world the original planning started in 1955, it was initiallyheld as a competition with the aim of producing a building that was a venuethat could be used for multiple purposes the specifications were they wanted ahall big enough to hold 3,000 guests and a smaller one to hold 1,200 cost wasnot factored in the design phase out of the 233 entry’s only one stood outabove all the rest and that was Danish architect Jørn Utzon who was employedby The Ove Arup and partners, hisdesign was so unique it kept making a return from the rejected submissionspile.  The construction started on the second of March 1959and finally concluded in 1973 there was a ceremony that was held to mark thestart of the construction the architect presented a bronze plaque that would beplaced where the two great halls meet NSW Premier Joseph Cahill secured the plaque inplace almost simultaneously the jackhammering started and construction wasunder way. There were two main problems that faced stage one,first is the intended site that was to be built on had not been surveyedaccurately at the time the competition was purposed. The site was made up ofalluvial deposit which is made up of silts, clays, sands and gravel this processis caused by rivers and sea spilling over the banks. The second problem is thatthe weight of the roof at this stage is unknown.  The construction work was undertaken by MR Hornibrook the whole process took sixteen years to complete as there were somany problems during the construction phase there were so many delays. Thedesign of the roof proved to be very problematic this is one of the reasons forthe time delays in 1961 a team of engineers decided to make the roof shells outof a sphere as the angle of the curvature stays the same at any given pointthis allowed them to move on with the construction.  The Sydney opera houses materials consist of areinforced concrete frame the structure of the shells were pre-fabricated andthe tiles that cover the shells are made in Sweden they are a mixture of whiteand cream but from a lot of angles the appear just white the facades is made ofa minimum steel frame with polarized glass, the majority of the interiormaterials are pink garnet purchased from Tarana and plywood which is locallyscored form the surrounding area of new south wales.

 The original design for the all glass windows was tobe a timber framing they also experimented with concrete but due to the highlycorrosive sea side atmosphere the only option was to use a steel frame thearchitect JørnUtzon wanted an all glass wall and before he resignedfrom the project he left a clear picture of how he wanted the glass walls tolook to summarise, the frame work should not act as a support to the shells theglass wall should appear as if it is hanging from the shells. To adapt to the climate around the opera house thereis a weatherproof membrane covering the shell and protecting it from thecorrosive weather conditions.         The cost of the whole construction process was estimatedto be 7 million Australian dollars however the actual cost was a staggering 102million that puts the cost 1,457% over the expected budget.   Concrete is one of the most commonly used buildingmartial it has been used since the Roman era, over the years it has developedwith different types of mixes being created for the specific job the reason itis used a lot is due to the raw materials being easily accessible theingredients can be found in almost all countries in the world the rawingredients are lime stone, clay and iron they are all crushed then transfer toa kiln the mixture is then heated to temperatures reaching 270 degreesfortnight it is now partially molten forming a new marble sized componentcalled clinker once this is cooled it is then grinded in to a fine powder. Thisin the glue that binds all the necessary ingredients to make concrete they areaggregate, sand and water the water actually has a chemical reaction with thecement that allows it to glue all the components together.                 

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