This chapter explores the theories and models that encompass the theoretical framework of this study. The framework will form the foundation for examining, as well as discussing consumer behaviour. The theories presented will be utilized partly or entirely depending on the relevance they serve towards the rationale of the study. The theories presented include: the marketing mix, market segmentation and consumer behaviour. The objective of this study as emphasized is to explore the extent to which culture influences fashion consumption. There is a significant quantity of literature that investigates this subject matter, with a focus on cultural consumer behaviour, as well as the aspects that persuade buyer behaviour. This literature review intends to examine the influence of culture on consumer behaviour in the fashion industry. It will concentrate on major topics that have been identified in the course of reviewing the literature.

These themes entail culture, consumer behaviour and fashion consumption of consumers in the United Kingdom and Egypt. This literature review also presents an insight into the varied construal and concepts of culture, in addition to how culture affects the individual. Culture and FashionFor everybody working in the fashion industry, it is imperative to be able to identify and to forecast cultural and social movements, so as to appreciate the fashion environment, in addition to being able to function within the fast-changing fashion trends. Being able to predict what will happen in the near future is what places a fashion designer, retailer or consumer in a position to make accurate decisions. It is essential to appreciate that fashion is not an isolated industry since it links beyond attire and into lifestyles.

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Lifestyle and fashion trends are significantly subject to social-cultural changes, for instance, artistic movements, modernization, as well as technological innovation (Fletcher, 2008, p. 53). Dilworth-Anderson and Boswell (2005, p. 141) assert that persons adopt a fashion trend as long as it is consistent with the culture of that region. This assertion is further validated by the fact that it is increasingly difficult almost impossible to find Muslim women dressed in mini skirts in Saudi Arabia, or non-Muslim women wearing burqas in the U.S.

Another example of the influence of culture on fashion is demonstrated by the way Ancient Egyptian fashion was predominantly influenced by Egyptian culture. Examples of how culture influences fashion can also be witnessed through how Australian millinery is inspired by its Australian flora and fauna. Linking its natural and scenic attractiveness with everything, including fashion. Fashion continues to be a component of Australian culture. Bhutanese are expected to dress in their traditional attire in public places.

However, culture in a particular region transforms gradually, as fashion trends also become influenced by the shifting culture in that specific region. Fashion, in regard to apparel, is constantly varying and it indirectly reflects the speedy rate of transformation in popular culture, as well as its effect on young women. Recently, fashion from the 1980’s is also reappearing across Europe and Africa in a manner that defies geographical differences.

Culture and geography affect fashion in several different ways, and understanding different cultures is important in generating a better understanding of those cultural influences. Cultural diversity has influenced several aspects of day to day living, for instance, the advertising of positive cultural diversity in the fashion industry. In many popular magazines, it is common to come across a spectacular display of cultural influences, where Safari prints stir up strong imagery of African landscape.

Fashion in the present day is at the forefront of the cultural diversity movement, as well as the promotion of other cultures (Kacea and Lee, 2002, p. 163).