This is a prophetic speech delivered by Richard Feynman at
California Institute of Technology on 
Dec  29, 1959. This paper
discusses about the exploration and discovery of a new technology which we now
call “Nanotechnology”. This paper starts by describing about the two fields
developed by Kamerlingh Onnes and Percy Bridgman. Furthermore the paper
discusses the problems associated with manipulating and controlling things on
small scale. Feynman goes on to discuss the possibility of storing all the
volumes of Encyclopedia Britannica on the head of the pin. Further the paper
suggests photoelectric effect as the method to achieve this and
photolithography and thin film coating as the methods to read data from the
head of the pin. The next issue discussed is the storage of data and proposes an
information coding system to enable storage of large amount of data into small
space. The author gives the example of DNA to prove the point that it’s not
mandatory to have large space to store bulk data. The paper further explores the
applications in Automobiles, computing, machines etc and discusses the possibility
of having micro machines control in the manufacturing and production processes
and how it is going to reduce processing time. At the end the author announces
a high school competition where one claim a prize of $1000 by engraving  information on the page of a book on an area
1/25,000 smaller in linear scale in a way that it can be read by an electron
microscope or by making an electric motor in nanoscale.

The paper is highly visionary and futuristic. The paper
suggests methods to create things in micro scale that would help us to advance
in different fields.

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The seed of nanotechnology was sown with this talk and it is the
most emerging technology in today’s era. The paper discusses how to solve
problems faced in biology by manipulating strands of DNA and RNA, to make mini
computers and to design tiny robot surgeons and tiny microscope etc. These all
concepts were mere imagination at the time the lecture was given but now after
58 years, all the theoretical concepts he discussed in the paper are
implemented and this field has a name Nanotechnology, an initiative, budget and
a future.