TO WHAT EXTENT U.
S LED INVASION IN IRAQ AFTER 9/11 IS THE SEEDS OF TURMOIL IN THE REGION?Table of Contents1. Background/Context 22. The Proposed Research 23.
The Informing Literature 34. Indicative Bibliography 45. Conclusion: The Concept Note as a Viability Test 4References 6?1.
Background/Context According to international realism theory, it is argued that the dominance of state in decision making is supported in self interest. The identities and the interest of actors shape the behaviour of the state decisions. The realism believes that the state involvement is often crucial as there is no other credible power over the state. The international system is naturally and anarchic in which humans are evil (Stempel, 2006). The duty of the state is to minimize the power of the military and the relative power can be used to survive in the anarchic system. Therefore, from the realistic perspective, the international and national security is the priority and it is natural for the powerful states to go on the war with their enemies especially in order to reinforce the state power (Burnham, Lafta, Doocy and Roberts, 2006). The government of Saddam Husain was perceived as the threat and the United States investigated that Iraq was stockpiling the weapons for the mass destruction, but later on, they did not find any type of weapons for mass destruction. Hence, it was the fault of US intelligence as it was proved by UN that there was not any type of mass destruction weapons existed in Iraq.
Therefore, as per realism theory, the US decision to go to the war with Iraq was legitimized because of threat due to Iraq enrichment nuclear programs supported by the terrorist groups. This research presents the consequences of dictatorship opposed by the US that support democracy and it legitimized war on Iraq because of stockpile weapons and links to Osama bin Laden and Al-Qaida (Fawn and Hinnebusch, 2006). The invasion of US in Iraq resulted in the rise of jihadist militarist groups such as ISIS and ISIL that are also named as Daesh.
The phenomena related to invasion of US in Iraq is the most debatable social phenomena throughout last decade that create conflicts among state due to a rapid increase in a terrorist attack by from ISIS. 2. The Proposed Research The research question for this study is:? What is the extent to which US-led invasion in Iraq after September 11 and what are its consequences?To answer the above question the research will be based on secondary data collection as well as qualitative data. The qualitative data will be gathered through interview and the sample size will be of 5 respondents. The sampling population that will be approached for the study will be law enforcement officials in order to know their perspective towards the decree of US to go on the war with Iraq, its consequences and future terrorism threat from ISIS (Roberts, Lafta, Garfield, Khudhairi and Burnham, 2004). Besides this, the secondary data collection will help in exploring the in-depth view regarding the aftermath in term of political, social, economic, humanitarian consequences inside Iraq and outside Iraq. The secondary data will also preset the exploratory perspective regarding the Iraq invasion based on theoretical assumptions.
It will present the realism, liberalism, elite interest and ideological influence to address the reason behind the invasion policy that was considered by the Bush administration (Ryan, 2004). 3. The Informing Literature In the year 2001, the United State undergoes with the terrorist attack by the Islamic group named al-Qaeda. This attack killed about 3000 people and it injured more than 6000 people. The Bush administration claimed 9/11 attack on Iraq and went on the Iraq war to spread the democracy across the world which resulted in sectarianism violence. On March 2003 the US declared the war on Iraq and about 70% of Americans supported these initiatives and remaining 30% believed that the war will create turmoil and it will anticipate the long conflicts among states, which can affect the US economy negatively.
The invasion of Iraq is the grand strategy adopted by the US for the assertion of global domination. The Bush formulated the National security strategy in response to the attack of 9/11 and call for the full spectrum dominance (Record, 2003). Based on the realism school of through the foreign policy remains consistent over the time and the decision of the government to go to war is to maintain security. The war cost is calculated based on the benefits such as security and power. Iraq was particularly targeted because of its geostrategic location which was creating the multiple threats to the US. Iran has unsurpassed oil resources that can be potentially deployed against the US (Moss, Standley and Roodman, 2005). According to the Marxist theory, it is implied that the way on Iraq was to control the natural resources of oil for the new market.
This shows that the war on Iraq was not due to a weapon of mass destruction, or to promote democracy or protecting the human right, but it shows that the US invade in Iraq to enter into the new market. 4. Indicative Bibliography Brands and Feaver (2016) ; Murphy (2014) In 2003 the US along with the UK coalition initiated war on Iraq by exploding into Baghdad. The hostilities began about 90 minutes and in 2006 Saddam Hussain was founded guilty of a crime against humanity but no weapons of mass destruction were found. Zunes, (2015) ; ZAIDI (2016) The rise of ISIS is the direct consequences of US occupation of Iraq and invasion. The Bush administration illegally invades in Iraq which created counter-insurgency war. Heinrich (2015) ; Zarif (2007) Iraq has the second largest oil reserve, which makes it the most influential state in the middle east. The attack of 9/11 demonstrated that the US was vulnerable to largest scale attack by the non-state organization.
Hinnebusch (2007); Houghton, (2001) The US invaded in Iraq in order to accomplish its global grand strategy, maintain strategy position in Middle eaten countries and the interest of BushDanju, Maasoglu and Maasoglu (2013) The liberalism perspective beliefs that the difference between non-democracies and democracies are the fundamental cause of war. The Marxist perspective prove that the US invaded into Iraq in order to have new markets and take control over oil resources with created turmoil and it opened the room for religious extremism5. Conclusion: The Concept Note as a Viability TestThis research will contribute academically and it will help in analyzing the adverse effect of invading into Iraq and the birth of ISIS. The invasion of US into Iraq was personal interest and the illegal decree which resulted in anarchy locally and intentionally due to the rise of extremist groups.?References1. Brands, H. and Feaver, P.
, 2016. Stress-Testing American Grand Strategy. Survival, 58(6), pp.
93-120.2. Burnham, G.
, Lafta, R., Doocy, S. and Roberts, L., 2006. Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey. The Lancet, 368(9545), pp.
1421-14283. Danju, I., Maasoglu, Y.
and Maasoglu, N., 2013. The Reasons Behind US Invasion Of Iraq. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 81, pp.
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e-ir.info/2015/03/09/one-war-many-reasons-the-us-invasion-of-iraq/ (Accessed On: 30th December 2017)6. Hinnebusch, R., 2007. American invasion of Iraq: causes and consequences. Perceptions.7. Houghton, D.
P., 2001. US foreign policy and the Iran hostage crisis (Vol.
75). Cambridge University Press.8. Moss, T.
J., Standley, S. and Roodman, D., 2005.
The Global War on Terror and US Development assistance: USAID allocation by country, 1998-2005.9. Murphy, K., 2014. Identifying the enemy in confused Iraq and Syria. Eureka Street, 24(18), p.27.
10. Record, J., 2003. Bounding the global war on terrorism (pp. 12-2003). Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College.
11. Roberts, L., Lafta, R., Garfield, R., Khudhairi, J. and Burnham, G.
, 2004. Mortality before and after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: cluster sample survey. The Lancet, 364(9448), pp.1857-1864.12. Ryan, M., 2004.
Framing the war against terrorism: US newspaper editorials and military action in Afghanistan. Gazette (Leiden, Netherlands), 66(5), pp.363-382.13. Stempel, C., 2006. Televised sports, masculinist moral capital, and support for the US invasion of Iraq. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 30(1), pp.
79-106.14. ZAIDI, S.M.A.
, (2016) Reconstituting Local Order in Pakistan: Emergent ISIS and Locally Constituted Shariah Courts in Pakistan.15. Zarif, M.J., 2007.
Tackling the Iran-US Crisis: The need for a paradigm shift. Journal of International Affairs, pp.73-94.
16. Zunes, S. (2015), The US and the Rise of ISIS Online Available at: https://www.huffingtonpost.com/stephen-zunes/the-us-and-the-rise-of-is_b_8754584.html (Accessed on: 30th December 2017)