Tourism is one of the industries that are important to the planetary economic system last few decennaries. Yet, the changing of the travel tendency late leads to the economic growing. The alterations are cause by the young person going frequence and the travel periods. They tend to go more often and for longer periods, therefore these groups of people become an progressively of import section of the planetary touristry industry.
Richards and Wilson ( 2003 ) indicate that, “ Young person and pupil travel has been an of import basis of the international travel market for over 50 old ages it is merely the recent explosive growing of the international pupils ‘ population that has thrust this market into the limelight ” . From the World Tourism Organization ( WTO ) study as cited in Taiyab ( 2005 ) , international trips taken by immature travellers grew from 14.6 % in 1980 to 20 % in 2001, and make 25 % in 2005. Harmonizing to the Federation of International Youth Travel Organizations studies as cited in Kim, Jogaratnam and Noh ( 2006 ) , from the 140 million of international tourer reachings per twelvemonth, 20 per centum of them are the immature tourers.
Youth Travel Market
The WTO defines that the ‘young ‘ travellers are between 16 to 25 old ages old who take a trip affecting at least one dark ‘s stay.
However, Canada expanded the definition to include immature grownups of between 26 to 30 old ages old ( Taiyab, 2005 ) .Taiyab ( 2005 ) indicates that youth travel markets are being categorized into 2 independent young person travel and young person group travel. There are different features, motives and merchandise demand among these 2 groups to carry through or accommodate their demands and wants.Independent young person travel besides known as independent young person travellers, free independent young person travellers, foreign independent travellers or backpackers. They normally travel to a topographic point either in a little informal group or entirely. Most of them are internet understanding, they will seek the information for that peculiar travel finish via cyberspace, so that the pre-trip planning can be good arranged.
The distance of the travel finish usually will be really far off from their place and it takes a longer period because they want to derive experience, increase their cognition and research different civilizations at different environments. Besides, they tend to be monetary value sensitive for going disbursals including the nutrient, adjustment and etc.While for the youth travel group, it is formed by a group of 6 immature people or more that are going together. This class is divided into 2 groups which are the school-based young person group travel and non-school-based young person group travel.
By and large, school-based young person group travel is related to the course of study or co-curricular activities such as school societies, music public presentation, athletics competition, educational Tourss, cultural exchange trips and so forth. Those activities are carried out in a group construction and accompanied by instructors or school forces. In the other manus, non-school-based young person group travel is besides in a group construction, it may happen in smaller groups, but the activities are organized by the societies outside of the school such as athleticss squad, church group, cultural or musical public presentation company, Scouts or Girl Guides, young person nine and more. The group will be led by parents or other grownups.
Literature Review of Travel Motivation
Gnoth, 1997 ( as cited in Yoon and Uysal, 2005 ) defined that motive is an internal and external motivations. An internal motivation is connected with thrusts, feelings, and inherent aptitudes while external motor involves mental representations such as cognition or beliefs. Motivation is the driving force behind all facets of human behaviour ( Fodness, 1994, as cited in Petersen, 2009 ) . Motivation is the cardinal for the development of touristry, it could non be without any involvement or the demand to go ( Murphy, 1985, as cited in Bonera, n.
d. ) .
2.2 Travel Motivation
Travel motives defined “ as the planetary integration web of biological and cultural forces which gives value and way to go picks, behaviour and experience ” ( Pearce, Morrison & A ; Rutledge, 1998 as cited by Banerjea, n.d. ) .
Harmonizing to Crompton & A ; McKay, 1997, as cited in Petersen, 2009, travel motive can be understood as a dynamic procedure of internal psychological factors which create an imbalanced equilibrium in the person, and this is what brings the individual to go. Tourism motive is a multi-motive dimensional ( Zhang and Marcusen, 2007 ) . When taking a certain finish, people will frequently hold more than one motivation to see the topographic point.
For illustration, a individual may take Pangkor Island with a motivation of relaxation in a pleasant safe topographic point combined with sing a local historical heritage.
The Theory of Travel Motivation
Maslow ‘s Hierarchy Theory
Harmonizing to Maslow ( 1943 ) as cited in Banerjea ( n.d ) there are five demands to organize a hierarchy based on Maslow ‘s Hierarchy Theory, come oning from the lower to the higher demands. The lower demands are physiological, safety, belonging and love. Self-esteem and self-actualization would be the higher demands.
Maslow stated that if the lower demands are fulfilled, the person would be motivated by demands and returns to the following degree of the hierarchy. For illustration, a individual would non go to the state that is infected by H1N1, he or she will merely see the peculiar finish whenever it is safe.
Four Motivational Needs
Beard and Ragheb ( 1983 ) as cited in Banerjea ( n.
d ) stated four motivational demands as derived from the work of Maslow ( 1970 ) which are the rational constituent, the societal constituent, the competency-mastery constituent, and the stimulus-avoidance constituent. Intellectual constituent assesses the extent of persons involve in leisure activities such as acquisition, researching, detecting, thought or conceive ofing. The societal constituent assesses the extent of persons engage in leisure activities for societal grounds such as the demand for friendly relationship and interpersonal relationships and the demand for the regard of others.
The competence-mastery constituent assesses the extent of persons engage in leisure activities in order to accomplish, maestro, challenge and compete. The stimulus-avoidance constituent of leisure motive assesses the thrust to get away and acquire off from over-stimulating life state of affairss such as the demand for some persons to avoid societal contacts, to seek purdah and unagitated conditions and others.
Factors that Motivated Young Tourist to Travel
Pull and Push Model
Dann ( 1977 ) as cited in Bonera ( 2008 ) proposed a two degree strategy of factors that motivate immature tourers in the travel determination doing procedure: push and pull factors.
Young tourers are motivated to go because of the pull and pushed factors. The thought of the push-pull theoretical account is the decomposition of a immature tourer ‘s pick of finish into two forces ( Bansal and Eiselt, 2004 ) . The internal or psychological forces “ pushed ” immature tourers to do travel determination while the external forces of the finish attributes “ pulled ” immature tourers to go to that peculiar topographic point ( Crompton, 1979 ; Dann, 1977 ; Uysal & A ; Jurowski, 1994 as cited in Yoon and Uysal, 2005 ) .
The pull motives are more affiliated to emotional facets whereas push motives are related to cognitive facets ( Yoon and Uysal, 2005 ) . ”Push ” factors are intangible factors that pushes a tourer off from place, while ”pull ” factors are touchable features drawing tourers towards the finish ( Andreu, BigneA? , & A ; Cooper, 2000, as cited in Jonsson and Devonish, 2008 ) . Push factors are intrinsic desires of the immature tourer such as the desire for flight, remainder and relaxation, escapade, wellness, or prestigiousness while pull factors are related to the attraction of a given finish such as beaches, adjustment and recreational installations, and cultural and historical resources ( Uysal and Jurowski 1994 as cited in Chi and Sung, 2008 ) .
Reasons of Young Tourist Travel
Young tourers have their really ain grounds to go, which the grounds can be internally or externally ( McGhee, Loker-Murphy, & A ; Uysal, 1996 as cited in Yoon and Uysal, 2005 ) .The immature tourer will travel for going because of push motives such as the desire for flight ( e.
g. acquiring off from school or occupation, flight from duties, cut down emphasis, being off from demands at place, acquire a opportunity to be free, being physically or emotionally invigorated, see a simpler life style and etc ) , remainder and relaxation ( e.g. making nil at all, acquiring a alteration from a busy work, to loosen up, to bask good conditions and etc ) , wellness and fittingness ( e.g. acquire close to nature, engage in athleticss, position athletics events and etc ) , escapade and societal interaction ( e.g.
being make bolding and adventurous, happening bangs, run intoing new friends and local people, rediscovering oneself and etc ) , household togetherness ( e.g. sing friends and relations, being together as a household, sing topographic points where household came from and etc ) , and exhilaration ( e.g. being physically active, finding exhilarations and etc ) .The pull motives that affected the immature tourers are sun and beaches ( e.g.
warm and cheery conditions, sea and beaches and etc ) , natural environment ( e.g. rivers/lakes/streams, snow or mountains, beautiful scenery and landscapes, quiet remainder country and etc ) , clip and cost ( e.g. travel clip, good value for the cost, easy handiness, convenient transit, handiness of information about a finish and etc ) , cultural and historical resources ( e.
g. educational chances, larning something new or increasing cognition, sing a new civilization or new life-style or new finish or alien nutrient and etc ) .
In a nutshell, immature tourers are deriving markets in the touristry industry. Tourism industry is become more of import to great benefits to the society and enhances economic systems of each state. It helps to develop the state with the substructure development, influx of foreign currency, additions occupation chances and others.
On top of that, the authorities will concentrate on the panning, direction and rating of touristry industry development. Travel becomes more of import and indispensable among immature people in their unrecorded as it can fulfill immature people demands and wants. In add-on, single development can be achieved via certain captivations of the travel such as bettering their cognition, understand the other states ‘ cultural and heritage.