Undertaking done by Tsingovatova Elena
TWO APPROCHES TO THE SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
Historical Review of the Principals of Management
The traditional theoretical account characterised as disposal under “ the formal control of political leading, based on a purely hierarchal theoretical account of bureaucratism, staffed by lasting, impersonal and anon. functionaries, motivated merely by the public involvement, functioning any regulating party every bit and non lending to policy but simply administrating those policies decided by the politicians ” ( Public Management and Administration and Introduction by Owen E Huges, p.23 ) .
By the 1920s this theoretical account was to the full formed and continued with highly small alteration for at least 50 old ages. “ Young ” practicians were so assured of their theories and they believed that the betterment of authorities and its disposal would advance a better life for all.
After the review of the theory of the separation between disposal and political relations considered as the myth to digest that politicians and decision makers could be separated, the statement took topographic point between bookmans of public disposal.
However the political control and the theoretical footing of the bureaucratism were exhaustively established and unchanged, there were public sector versions of direction theory. The row of imports from the private sector took topographic point and the most of import is the scientific direction. That was explained by feigning that Public Management is able to be non-political and therefore the operational methods used in the populace sector would be the same as those used in the private sector.
But the larger waste is still human resources, like human attempts, which go on every twenty-four hours through such of our Acts of the Apostless as are drop the balling, ill-directed or inefficient, and which referred to as a deficiency of “ national efficiency ” .
Scientific Management School
The basic premise of this school is the doctrine that workers, at the operational degree, are economically motivated and that they will set forth their best attempts if they are rewarded financially. The accent is on maximal end product with minimal strain, extinguishing waste and efficiency. The work of Frederick Winslow Taylor dominates the thought of this “ school ” .
Biography of F.Taylor
Frederick Winslow Taylor ( 1856-1915 ) was a mechanical applied scientist whose Hagiographas on efficiency and scientific direction were widely read. Taylor devised the system he called scientific direction
, a signifier of industrial technology that established the administration of work. The chief end of his theory was to increase productiveness. And at the same clip he did non favour brotherhoods or industrial democracy. That ‘s why his theory is regarded as autocratic manner of disposal.
Efficiency was the most of import subject of Taylor ‘s plants. As a steel works director in Philadelphia, he was interested in cognizing how to acquire more work out of workers, who are “ of course lazy and engage in systematic soldiership. ” This attitude, he found, was contributed to by hapless direction. He observed “ when a of course energetic adult male works for a few yearss beside a lazy one, the logic of the state of affairs is unanswerable. “ Why should I work hard when the lazy chap gets the same wage that I do and does merely half as much work? ” . He proposed utilizing scientific research methods to detect the one best manner to make a occupation.
Taylor ‘s attempts were resented by brotherhoods and directors likewise: directors because their intuition and discretion were challenged, brotherhoods because their functions were questioned. Taylor was fired from his original occupation in Philadelphia. He so went to Bethlehem Steel, where he once more was fired after three old ages. The brotherhoods, incensed by this clip, were instrumental in acquiring his methods investigated by a particular congressional commission ; they succeeded in prohibiting the usage of “ stop tickers ” and “ fillips ” in army armories until World War II. However, his constructs spread to Europe and Great Britain and received drift in the Soviet Union after the Revolution. Many maintain that this motion represents techniques merely and “ hinders ” the development of a doctrine.
Concept of Frederic Taylor
Tayrol ‘s attitude toward work was that adult male and machine are similar. He stated that “ it is no individual component, but instead this whole combination, that constitutes scientific direction, which may be summarised as: Science, non regulation of pollex ; Harmony, non strife ; Co-operation, non individuality ; Maximum end product, in topographic point of restricted end product ; The Development of each adult male to his greatest efficiency and prosperity. ”
Taylor believed that the best direction is the true scientific discipline, resting upon clearly defined Torahs, regulations, and rules of scientific direction which are applicable to all sorts of human activities, from our simple single Acts of the Apostless to the work of our great corporations, which call for the most luxuriant co-operation. He besides believed that whenever these rules right applied, consequences must follow which are genuinely.
Taylor expounded several basic rules:
1 ) To garner all traditional cognition and classify, tabulate, and cut down it to regulations, Torahs, and expressions so as to assist workers in their day-to-day work.
2 ) To develop a scientific discipline of each component of adult male ‘s work to replace the rule-of-thumb method.
3 ) To scientifically choose and so develop, learn, and develop the worker.
4 ) To co-operate with workers to guarantee is done harmonizing to developed scientific discipline rules.
5 ) To consequence an about equal division of work and duty between workers and directors are to be given work for which they are best fitted, as are employees.
He felt that faster work could be assured merely through
1 ) enforced standardization of methods 2 ) enforced version of best instruments and working conditions 3 ) enforced co-operation
Scientific direction as a procedure involves
1 ) time-and-motion surveies to make up one’s mind a criterion for working ;
2 ) a wage-incentive system that was a alteration of the piecework method already in being ;
3 ) altering the functional administration.
Although he has n’t invented time-and-motion surveies but did transport them out more exhaustively than predecessors.
Among the experiments he performed to turn out his theory were:
1. Work survey
: One experiment detailed motions of workers in a store and suggested short cuts or more efficient ways of executing certain operations. Within three old ages the end product of the store had doubled.
dised tools for stores:
In another country he found that the coal shovels being used weighed from 16 to 38 lbs. After experimenting, it was found that 21-22 lbs was the best weight. Again, after three old ages 140 work forces were making what had antecedently been done by between 400 and 600 work forces. In another country he found that the coal shovels being used weighed from 16 to 38 lbs. After experimenting, it was found that 21-22 lbs was the best weight. Again, after three old ages 140 work forces were making what had antecedently been done by between 400 and 600 work forces.
3. Choice and preparation of workers:
Taylor insisted that each worker be assigned to make what he was best suited for and that those who exceeded the defined work be paid “ fillips. ” Production, as might be expected, rose to an all-time high.
Taylor, as a consequence of these experiments, advocated assignment of supervisors by “ map ” – that is, one for preparation, one for subject, etc. This functional attack is apparent today in many administrations, including libraries.
Taylor took many of his constructs from the bureaucratic theoretical account developed by Max Weber, peculiarly in respect to regulations and processs for the behavior of work in administrations. Weber, the first to joint a theory of authorization construction in administrations, distinguished between power and authorization, between obliging action and voluntary response. He identified three features which aided authorization:
1 ) personal appeal ( personality ) 2 ) tradition ( usage ) 3 ) bureaucratism ( through regulations and ordinances )
The construct of bureaucratism developed about the same clip as scientific direction, and ideas on specialization of work, degrees of authorization, and command all emerged from Weber ‘s Hagiographas. Weber was more concerned with the construction of the administration in which people perform their work functions, instead than with the person. Most of his Hagiographas and research related to the importance of specialization in labor, ordinances and processs, and the advantages of a hierarchal system in doing informed determinations.
Luther Gulick and Lyndal Urvick ‘s Principals of Administration
The apogee of the Principles of Administration Approach was the publication of Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick ‘s Documents on the Science of Administration. In that clip, 1937, public disposal bookmans had come to believe in a inactive set of rules by which any administration could be designed or its map improved. These rules, implied that administrations were really much like machines, and that directors could follow a set of expression to maximize their efficiency.
Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick are known in the universe for the work “ Notes on a Theory of Organization ” issued in 1937. They developed the acronym POSDCORB to depict the administrative maps of directors.
POSDCORB stands for:
lanning – Fixing methodical programs for pull offing plans ;
rganising – Making the different sub-units of the administration ;
taffing – Hiring competent employees to make full vacancies ;
irecting – Publishing directives with clip and public presentation standards ;
o-ordinating – Relating employees ‘ attempt expeditiously ;
eporting – studies for higher-ups ;
udgeting – Preparing and put to deathing budgets.
Analysis of two bases
An frequently perennial unfavorable judgment of the scientific direction attack is that it overemphasised productiveness and underemphasised human nature. This unfavorable judgment is good expressed by Amitai Etzioni, who wrote that “ although Taylor originally set out to analyze the interaction between human features and the features of the machine, the relationship between these two elements which make up the industrial work procedure, he ended up by concentrating on a far more limited topic: the physical features of the human organic structure in everyday occupations – e.g. , shovelling coal or picking up tonss. Finally Taylor came to see human and machine resources non so much as reciprocally adapt able, but instead adult male working as an extremity to the industrial machine ” . Similar unfavorable judgment could be levelled at other motions within the scientific direction attack. The Scientific Management attack directed to make scientific, specialised, technocratic environment which makes it clear how to be more productive and maximize wagess. But his theory can be seen as nonreversible. You can non construe the human being as a machine as it has it ‘s ain involvement, it ‘s ain demands, that the human being is a entity of the different tempers and emotions. He has n’t counted that the motivation factor for employees can be non merely pecuniary, worker can be motivated for illustration by the involvement of working in the peculiar field ( e.g. instructors do non owe a batch of money from their work but they are normally motivated by the involvement working with people ; e.g. some tourers ushers besides do non owe a batch of money but they are interested in run intoing new people and going ) , experience that he/she would derive through being on peculiar working topographic point ( e.g. nurse does n’t acquire much money for her work, but she wants to acquire more experience with clip ) . It is besides noted that
design of work processs is non possible to set up in every field.
Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick tried to set up rules of direction to actuate worker they believed that economic efficiency rooted in human inclination toward reason and order.
As with the Principles of Administration Approach, subsequent experience has shown public administrations, and the execution procedure, to be far more complex than was imagined in 1937.
The both of theories was seeking for the “ one best manner of making work ” for increasing of productiveness, efficiency and effectivity of finishing any work. But execution of each of them has limited consequence on the productiveness and depends on peculiar fortunes.
Not any of listed theories can be implemented in modern society, specially in modern Public Administration, the ground for that is highly complicated human dealingss. Public Administration is a human scientific discipline hence human behavior plays the most of import function in the topic of PA.
Therefore, there is no usage in implementing of the considered theories of Science Management in pattern.
List of Bibliography used:
1. Lecturer Notes.
2. Owen E Huges Public Management and Administration and Introduction
, Great Britain: Macmillan Press Limited, 1994.
3. Public Administration Biographies
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.usc.edu/ .
4. Theory AND ANALYSIS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.niu.edu/pub_ad/culhane/561.htm.
5. Scope and Theory Of Public Policy
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gsu.edu/~padjem/PHDSYL.html.