States can non afford to be everyone to everybody. Even they target a niche section and cater to it, by constructing a trade name image and a trade name personality, similar to its character and individuality. Switzerland is one such instance.

It is a state highly good defined by its features. It is a glorious illustration of a state branding attempt, chiefly because of its holistic nature. The spirit of what the state wants to be and wants to be perceived as to the remainder of the universe, has trickled down to all its merchandises, entities, corporations, Government, statute law and even people. Hence all the stakeholders actively live the trade name and that ‘s what makes it such a strong trade name with such a strong placement. And the eldritch spot is that, it has non been a witting attempt by the state. It is a authoritative instance of unwilled stigmatization.Switzerland has everlastingly been portrayed as the most idyllic topographic point to populate in. It has beautiful scenic venues, great concern clime and has a impersonal political base.

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It is known the universe over for its mountains, fathead redstem storksbills, tickers, cocoa and banking. However, it is non for everyone. One really typical state trade name character is its intimacy. It is n’t the most hospitable state and it has a aura of exclusivity, restrictiveness and secretiveness about itself. This is inbuilt in its state trade name character by design and non an accident.

Switzerland has through the old ages positioned itself as an aspirational state and this has pervaded to its merchandises excessively. Like a premium trade name, it is elect and private. The Swiss trade name emanates from the state and is lived by the Swiss merchandises, Swiss companies, Swiss existent estate and even the Swiss people. Most of the Swiss merchandises are premium priced and vie in the luxury section. Most Swiss companies are in the luxury concern. Swiss Bankss are known for their close ego. Swiss statute law is besides anti in-migration, and it is n’t easy to purchase belongings at that place.

Switzerland has milked its aspirational placement good. It ‘s desired by all, yet non for all dichotomy adds to its sex entreaty. In recent times, this has been reflected in media every bit good. There have been runs with postings, such as one demoing a white sheep kicking a black sheep off the Swiss flag or a posting demanding a clampdown on building of minarets in Switzerland. These have raged broad audiences around the universe, nevertheless reinstates the trade name characteristic even more.If there is any state that has had a alone, consistent, unfaltering positioning since ages and it is shared every bit by all the stakeholders, it is Switzerland. The state genuinely breathes the state trade name, without any witting attempt by the State.

Intentional Stigmatization: Dubai

Dubai is a authoritative instance of how branding changed the face of the province for it to go one of the most important metropoliss in the 20 first century, in the conference of Barcelone, Shanghai and Auckland. Wedged between Europe and Asia, buttressed by Africa, Dubai is the 2nd largest of the seven United Arab Emirates. However some decennaries back, before the find of oil, in the sixtiess it was merely a fishing crossroads inhabited by the Beduin folk, boat shapers and pearl frogmans. Its economic system was run on pearl exports. It was known for the best and most beautiful pearls.

And so oil was discovered.


However there were limited oil militias. And it had extra set of jobs. It had an wrong luggage of being a rigorous Muslim province and belonging to Saudi Arabia. It had hapless handiness and had limited publicities, taking to a sensed deficiency of conventional attractive forces.

Bing a portion of the unstable Middle East, it was perceived to be fraught with political uncertainness and instability. The trade name Dubai suffered and attracted really few visitants.


It was so the swayers envisioned that existent estate investing and finance, added to fall back touristry would take to a roar and they worked strategically towards accomplishing that. And they were right. Economic liberalisation and variegation was undertaken with revenue enhancement inducements and trade free zones promised. Dubai played on the wealth card and invested in heavy expensive installations.

International touristry was the nucleus of their scheme of economic variegation and hence they created a fantasyland. It was a living illustration to woolgather materialized, a fantasy universe created through immense investings. It earned the awe and astonishment of people who came to see concrete phantasy, phantasy that could be bought and enjoyed.


Tourism was a challenge for Dubai for the universe.

It stood for the tallest, highest and grandest of adult male ‘s creative activity. They kept supplanting people ‘s imaginativeness with countless metropolis high spots. They created assorted sub trade names for Dubai that are besides known the universe over. Supreme eating houses, promenades, hotels, cabarets, golf classs ; everything that reeked of a high terminal life, was built. They build the Burj Dubai, the tallest edifice in the universe. The Burj Al Arab Hotel, the lone seven leading hotel in the universe, in the form of a canvas overlooking the sea was built. Man made admirations were created. Three hundred islands in the form of the Earth were created, as besides a Manhattan sized peninsula visible from the infinite.

They build the universe ‘s first underwater resort. Ten supersized promenades were built, one on the form of Taj Mahal, one in the form of the Fobidden City. One of the largest extravaganzas in the universe, the Dubai Shopping Festival was planned jointly by the Government and the private sector and is one of the most successful private-public coactions in the universe. Many international athletics events were organized. From the Dubai World Club for horseracing, Dubai Tennis Open and Dubai PTA Golf circuit, Dubai managed to remain in the spotlight and media blaze all twelvemonth unit of ammunition. This bantam metropolis in the Persian Gulf farther plans of a 100 square stat mi development to include Aviation World, Space and Science World, Extreme Sports World, the Plantation Equestrian and Polo Club, Dubai Aerodrome, Pet Land, Safari Park and the list goes on. Dubai besides successfully attracted high profile concerns of Donald Trump, Reuters, Cisco, Microsoft, Sun, Virgin Airways and Martha Stewart. Dubai plays host to a assorted international meetings, exhibitions, conferences with planetary degrees fo comfort and service.

All this adds to the Dubai Master Brand.Dubai has successfully transformed itself from a Desert to a Destination. It sold a myth and created desire and machination through good crafted and integrated selling and stigmatization. Dubai was so one of the fastest turning finishs in the universe. Ironically, touristry presently contributes three times to the gross domestic merchandise than oil.Dubai successfully brushed aside the dust of the desert and created a fairy tale in the desert. It tried to sell the life style of the life-time, and was the best in it. It successfully transformed itself from desert to want.

Its stigmatization scheme was characterised by:changeless differentiated placement: A mix of Hong Kong, Singapore and Vegas. Progressive. Ostentatious. Fast paced.

Glitz Glamour.creativeness: One of the first illustrations of a finish that lacked attractive forces yet created 1 that will be retrieve everlastingly.dare: Every creative activity has left people dazed, confounded and amazed. Dubai surprises, every individual clip.

Re stigmatization:

Dubai is built on the trump card of image, wealth and high life style. The fiscal convulsion that it went through in 2010, might alter Brand Dubai. Experts claim that Brand Dubai is vulnerable now because Dubai is vulnerable station the crisis. Branding adept Walli Ollins claim that Brand Dubai will travel through a procedure of rediscovery and likely this clip detect its human side and talk the narrative of its people.

It wo n’t predate its image or munificence and wealth, nevertheless we might see a new side to a existent topographic point with existent people. And sing its Dubai, we should anticipate a pleasant surprise.

Niche stigmatization: Costa Rica

Costa Rica has successfully carved a niche for itself in the touristry universe map through clever scheme and execution.

This small Cardinal American state has successfully turned itself to a touristry steamroller, merely by playing on its alone competitory advantage. In the past two decennaries, it has positioned itself as the most desired nature and ecotourism finish.


Even every bit late as 1980s, Costa Rica ‘s touristry board pursued a different scheme, selling it as a ‘sun and sand ‘ finish, with public-private resort development.

The runs were directed at the usual conventional manners of metropolis touristry, beach touristry and golf. These publicities did n’t distinguish Costa Rica from any other state in Central America or the Mediterranean. Hence it got lost in the sea of states, all positioning themselves as the perfect beach topographic point.

Niche chance:

In the mid 1990s, the US Adventure Travel Association named Costa Rice as the ‘number one ecotourism finish of the universe ‘ . Till so ecotourism was a minuscule portion of their touristry offerings.

Costa Rica has a alone strength in the concentration of biodiversity. It occupies merely 0.03 % of the Earth ‘s surface, yet has 4 % of the universe ‘s programs and animate beings. It is considered as one the 20 bio diverse states in the universe, hence a oasis for nature lovers, who are rubing for rain forest walks, vents, river rafting and assorted custodies on escapade experience. Costa Rica for long has been committed to environment causes and preservation, which led to the constitution of the national park system as early at 1970, which now cover more than a one-fourth of its land. It has besides set an ambitious end of going C impersonal by 2021. Its gallant natural show attracted a batch of scientists, which created a positive word of oral cavity among nature lovers and led to the moving ridge of ecotourism in the state in the old ages to come.

Exploit your Competitive Advantage:

To develop a trade name, place your alone trade name strength. And one time that is done, crush it like a membranophone. With ecotourism hitting the charts the universe over, the state ‘s touristry board saw it as an effectual selling potency waiting to be exploited. It was a niche country and they directed all their attempts at that place.Their trade name placement is defined by two undertakings:Heralded enfranchisement for sustainable touristry programme.The universe celebrated run of ‘Costa Rica: No Artificial Ingredients ‘ , designed by Mc Cann Erickson:Mc Cann interestingly turned the serious issue of ecotourism into a joyous and playful side, with humor and creativeness. It presented a holiday in Costa Rica in the signifier of a cookery formula, “ Take Central America ‘s largest vent, add in national Parkss, mix in stat mis of pristine beaches ” . Through this, it smartly highlighted the diverse corsage of offering.

Decades on, though the formula scheme is no longer used, the tagline still remains.


Wanderlusttravel 2011 award. Second most preferable finish in the universe for nature and escapade partisans.Futurebrand ranks it the Best Latin American trade name, 2010.Costa Rica in Top Ten Ethical Destinations in the universe, 2011.Ecotourism is the 2nd largest beginning of income after silicon bit production.

Footings of foreign exchange, touristry is 2nd to merely electronic constituents sector led by INTEL.Has developed a sound touristry industry that has allowed it to protect its huge militias of natural resources while conveying economic benefits to the rural public.


There is intense competition from states who place themselves as ‘The Next Costa Rica ‘ , like Brazil, Chile and Panama. Costa Rica is presently in the Famous stage in the Destination Brand Fashion Curve. It is the most popular and desired finish for most people. However it runs the hazard of the ‘No 1 goes at that place anyplace ; it is excessively crowded ‘ phenomenon.

Hence it has to maintain innovating and happening fresh and appealing ways to maintain the trade name fashionable.The chief challenge for Costa Rica would be to retain its nucleus trade name proposition every bit good as reflecting a diverse tourer merchandise. While nature and ecotourism would be the nucleus offerings, they could tap into the other conventional signifiers ( like beach touristry ) in camouflage, to enable growing.

Multifaceted: Spain

Spain has frequently been held up as an illustration of a modern, successful re-branding run, which transformed ‘a sleepy, low rent, holiday topographic point for British and German working categories to a hip, cutting border cultural finish ‘ . The run demonstrates that if a state has really undergone a Renaissance, so by organizing assorted touch points of society and civilization, it can re vitalize itself.Spain has been hailed as the posting kid of branding successes of state.

However, what states run the hazard of is seting forth a gallant show of false specious world ( Dubai could run the hazard of that ) . An image Reconstruction will non work, if the state has n’t gone through a procedure of Reconstruction. Spain on the contrary, highlighted world.


After Franco ‘s regulation, Spain had a tough clip staggering with the after effects. It was seen as the Achilles Heel of Europe, backward, remote and associated with nil other than the Spanish Civil War. It was perceived as a hapless and stray state, with under developed touristry constructions, therefore small attractive force for the European tourers.Spain worked on itself and transformed itself into a strong democracy with stable political and civil establishments. Infrastructure was revamped and the robust economic system was eventually burgeoning.

However, it faced an image crisis. There was an evident gulf with the world and what others perceived of it. Hence, it orchestrated are launch into the universe phase with a multi faceted branding run. Spain tried to revitalize its image, by join forcesing with all its stakeholders in its civil and cultural society. The Iberian state showcased its modern and progressive ego which is a hub for touristry, humanistic disciplines, smart, merriment and frolic and for this they used diverse agencies.Branding of Spain was a success because it was built on constructions that were already in topographic point and it highlights world and non some desirous thought.

Multi pronged method:

Continuous runs: The chief aim of the run was to showcase to the international audience that Spain so was a smart holiday topographic point.

However that is n’t the lone thing that it offered. It showcased the multifaceted yet consistent whole ego. At the bosom of the trade name was artist Joan Miro ‘s colourful, vivacious logo and the universe celebrated ‘Everything under the Sun ‘ tagline ( first used in 1984 ) . A piece of modern art integrating both past and present, the Sun in yellow and ruddy, stars and bullring captured Spain ‘s personality.

The runs kept altering from ‘Everything under the Sun ‘ to ‘Passion for Life ‘ ( 1992-1995 ) to ‘Bravo Spain ‘ ( 1997 ) nevertheless the trade name values remained changeless. Another run called ‘Spain by… ‘ caught attending of the universe in 1996 when celebrated lensmans were asked to supply their ain readings of the kernel of Spain. However this was discontinued because the local people were n’t impressed by it. Hence the subsequent run ‘Bravo Spain ‘ was tested in British, French and German markets.

It communicated Spain utilizing strong and visually impactful telecasting and print ads and showed a mixture of good known every bit good as lesser known attractive forces of Spain.Barcelona Olympics: The Barcelona Olympics reinstated Spain as a major participant on the international circuit and particularly the European Union. Spain projected its transformed ego to the universe. The stigmatization run was launched so. Modern constructions were built, substructure was improved, societal and cultural development was emphasized and tremendous accent on urbanization and external projection.

The Olympics juxtaposed the modern and traditional sides of the metropolis. The Olympics on the shores of the Mediterranean with the background of showy skyscrapers etched in the heads of people, the new smart image of renascent Spain. Barcelona is the premier illustration for Olympics touristry.

It netted a record $ 550 million in lone telecasting rights. Finally, Barcelona became the most visited metropolis after London, Paris and Rome, going a magnet for immature professionals.Infrastructure: The Olympics equipped Spain with modern, fashionable substructure, unambiguously intermixing the old historical constructions with the new adult male made 1s. Telecommunications, coastal development, existent estate, lodging and conveyance were the chief focal point.

The Barcelona ‘s waterfront combined art with the technological specifications of a haven.Spanish trade names: Spanish multinationals grabbed eyeballs the universe over, particularly in Latin America. Telefonica, Repsol, Union Fenosa, Frexeinet and Real Madrid are known the universe over.Cultural diplomatic negotiations: Keeping itself tuned to the humanistic disciplines and civilization it gave a cultural push to movies and art. The building of Guggenheim in Bilbao put the disregarded Basque metropolis on the international museum map one time once more and contributed to its Reconstruction. Increased showcasing of plants of Gaudi got international acclamation.

In the international movie circuit, Padro Almodovar put Spain back in spotlight, accompanied by histrions Antonio Banderas and Penelope Cruz. The commixture of modern art of Dali and Miro with the old order La Sagrada Familia, puts forth the eclectic mix of heritage and modernness.Ibiza: Positioning Ibiza as the Sun and party capital helped.

Unambiguous placement of the island, makes it a hot party capital all twelvemonth unit of ammunition. And it keeps the trade name value of Spain, that of youthful, merriment and smart intact.Capitalizing on Events: Spain smartly marketed itself through assorted meetings, conferences of international stature to acquire attending. The 1991 Madrid Peace Conference demanded attending as Israel and Palestine tried to bury their tomahawk in the Iberian Capital. Other than the immense Barcelona Olympics that economically boosted the Spanish economic system, Seville Expo in 1992 besides got international celebrity.

Changeless, singular runs advancing assortment have kept Spain ever in the head and in trend. The ace trade name Spain is an constituted finish now pulling 1000000s of tourers every twelvemonth, with metropoliss Barcelona and Madrid and parts like Andalusia and Galicia as secondary trade names.The challenge would be to go on their on-going attempt of projecting their double image of a modern state with traditional roots.

Branding for Foreign Direct Investment: Intel in Costa Rica

In 1996, Intel, universe ‘s largest semi music director company, invested close to $ 300 million worth assembly and trial works in Costa Rica. Intel ‘s gross gross revenues were approximately two times the gross domestic merchandise of this bantam state, which has a population of merely 3.5 million. Intel ‘s strategy of things included an overall investing of about $ 500 million, hence it was a desired undertaking by many states. How a bantam Latin American state bagged it, is a authoritative instance of twenty-first century foreign investing stigmatization by any state.When Intel had decided to put up store elsewhere, there were a batch of strong rivals other than the improbable Costa Rica, viz. , Argentina, Brazil, Thailand, China, India, Korea and the similar.

Costa Rica ‘s national publicity bureau CINDE had focused its attempts and begun wooing INTEL as early at 1993. There were many phases to Costa Rica eventually being chosen, and the Governments worked resourcefully with all stakeholders briskly and with a province of urgency. It was a known fact, that the Intel undertaking would hold extended positive direct every bit good as multiplier effects on the general wellness of the economic system.CINDE weaved a scheme of investing publicity that matched bing competences. CINDE specifically approached Intel as there were common benefits accruing to both the investor and the host state, which made the environment economical and good-humored to investing.The Government systematically showed involvement, good readiness and lucidity in communications. The authorities along with the private stakeholders worked cohesively, demoing integrity at all degrees, intelligence demoing any sort of animus. Inspite of prosecuting foreign investors persistently, the Government held its land and offered no particular grants.

The grants were all, at the terminal of the twenty-four hours, good to the economic, infrastructural and societal development of the state.Costa Rican thorough scheme revolved around following dimensions:Costa Rica has had a peaceable political government throughout. The Government enjoys popular support and the regulation of jurisprudence is in topographic point.The economic construction was liberalized and privatised every bit early as 1982.

Currency was exchangeable and foreign ownership was acceptable.Strategic and serious steps were adopted to make a low pay but good educated pool of laborers by puting to a great extent in instruction and proficient preparation with a bilingual course of study.A really receptive environment to foreign investors.Costa Rica used its little size to its advantage, suggesting close knit and complete carbon monoxide ordination from Government, concern and media. This besides meant speedy determinations from Government and other needed organic structures, cut downing ruddy tapism and inefficiency.Top consideration and precedence was given to the Intel undertaking. Even the President of Costa Rica visited the Intel installations in US.

Costa Rica refused to offer particular enterprises in issues of changing Torahs, policies and processs to suit Intel to a great extent, showcasing transparence on the state ‘s portion.Particular inducements were offered in signifier of free trade zones and revenue enhancement enterprises. Transport substructure was well improved to back up lading motions.

Energy and H2O demands were taken attention of.Because of the good-humored and ethical environment for foreign investing, there are a batch of word of oral cavity generated, which is said to hold played a major function.Intel is presently the largest subscriber to the gross income and employment in the state. It has in a manner molded Costa Rica and paved manner for the chances foreign investing can accrue.

City Campaign: Yubari, Japan

Yubari is a little metropolis in Hokkaido in Japan, known for Yubari Melon and the Yubari International Fantastic Film Festival. It was one time a proud coal excavation metropolis, till one mine after the other closed down enduring loses. Then it turned its attending to touristry ; nevertheless all the freshly constructed tourer attractive forces failed miserably.

Residents began to go forth and population shrank to a ten percent of what it was. By 2007, the metropolis was $ 300 million in debt and declared insolvent. This sent shockwaves all across Japan.


The City Government gave a brief to Beacon Communications to come up with a scheme of rhenium stimulating the citizens and conveying life back to Yubari by doing it economically feasible.


Extensive research led to a absorbing insight- Yubari self-praises of the lowest divorces in Japan