Using GIS for Using GIS for Geographical Analysis Geographical AnalysisGeographical Analysis Geographical AnalysisUP 845672 | Principles of GIScience | 17th January 2018845672CONTENT PAGEFig 1 – A screenshot showing 48 glass recycling points in PortsmouthFig 2 – A point suggested behind Queen Alexandra HospitalFig 3 – Exact point of Location as seen on Google Street ViewFig 4 – A Screenshot from ArcMap showing a new glass recycling point (GRP) at the Shore Haven Parking LotFig 5 – A photo from Google Street View showing the Shore Haven Parking LotFig 6 – A Screenshot from ArcMap showing a new (GRP) by New Inn, On Havant RoadFig 7 – A Screenshot from ArcMap showing a new (GRP) by New Inn, On Havant RoadFig 8 – A Screenshot from ArcMap showing a new (GRP) beside the Nightingale CourtFig 9 – A photo from Google Earth Street View of Nightingale Court on Havant RoadFig 10 – A Screenshot from ArcMap showing Cycle World on London RoadFig 11 – A photo from Google Earth Street View of Cycle World, London RoadFig 12 – A screenshot of Portsmouth City after the 8 new (GRP) have been added and the 500metre threshold appliedFig 13 – A 1:100,000 scale briefing map for Operation Brown TrousersFig 14 – Shows the Slope of the entire area in different shades of blackFig 15 – Shows the hill shade and altitude of the entire area with different shades of Blue and the observation postsFig 16 – Shows other layers that were taken into consideration for the creation of the operation brown trouser map.Fig 17 – Shows the Altitude, Hill Shaded layer and Strahler Stream Vector of the River Valency of Boscastle.Fig 18 – Is a complete model diagram which includes the catchment statistics table for slope and altitude, Strahler Stream Order Vector Layer and Hill Shading Layer. This was built by the author on Model Builder.
Fig 19 – Shows Altitude, Hill Shaded layer, Strahler Stream Vector of Palmers Brook.Fig 20 – Is an Image of the Flood that occurred on River Valency in Boscastle in 2004.Fig 21 – Is an Image of Palmer’s Brook in the Isle of Wight.
Fig 22 – Is a map of Bembridge, Isle of WightFig 23 – Shows the hill shading, layer tinting and contouring over the San Paulo Site.Fig 24 – Shows the application of break lines over the San Paulo RiverFig 25 – Shows the de-trended surface of San Paulo River.Tables845672Table 1 – List of the number additional houses covered by extra glass recycling pointsTable 2 – Showing possible random and systematic errorsPART ANETWORK ANALYSIS FOR EMERGENCY SERVICES AND FACILITIES MANAGEMENTGlass is one hundred percent recyclable, it is unremittingly recyclable. Broken glass can be back in the kitchen as a new bottle in 30 days.
It is impossible to imagine what a piece of glass was used for 5 to 10 years ago. A jam jar today could have been a bottle of soft drink last year.845672Fig 1: A screenshot showing 48 glass recycling points in PortsmouthAccording to this map, most of the glass recycling points are located around junctions, sort of at the meeting points of streets. Far from Playgrounds and parks. They are not too close to houses but they remain at 500metres of accessibility or less to these houses.Well, this is so in the area of Portsmouth and Southsea.
Going north, towards Cosham and Farlington, we notice the glass recycling points are rather scanty and therefore the population has to travel longer distances to reach these few points.The Previous paragraph prompted my reason for recommending 8 new glass recycling points in Portsmouth.845672A) The first suggestion is behind Queen Alexandra Hospital. At the junction of Nightingale and Southwick Hill Roads.
I chose to locate the first new glass recycling point there because it is obviously a very strategic position for this. There is no household too close, and the glass recycling point will definitely be useful here.Fig 2: A point suggested behind Queen Alexandra HospitalFig 3: Exact point of Location as seen on Google Street View845672B) Also, I located another glass recycling point close to the parking space at Shore Haven, Southampton Road A27.
This is equally a very good location for this new glass recycling point as it will be easily accessible.Fig 4: A Screenshot from ArcMap showing a new glass recycling point at the Shore Haven Parking LotFig 5: A photo from Google Street View showing the Shore Haven Parking LotC) A third point was suggested by New Inn, on Havant Road. There are a good number of stores here, therefore the glass recycling point will really be appreciated as they have great need of it.845672Fig 6: A Screenshot from ArcMap showing a new glass recycling point by New Inn, On Havant RoadFig 7: A photo from Google Earth Street View of New Inn, Havant RoadD) A fourth point was suggested beside the Nightingale Court on Havant Road.845672Fig 8: A Screenshot from ArcMap showing a new glass recycling point beside the Nightingale Court on Havant RoadFig 9: A photo from Google Earth Street View of Nightingale Court on Havant RoadE) The 5th point was suggested beside Cycle World on London Road845672Fig 10: A Screenshot from ArcMap showing Cycle World on London RoadFig 11: A photo from Google Earth Street View of Cycle World, London RoadThe other recycling points suggested include;- Dob’s diner on Copnor Road,845672- Lidl, on the Goldsmith Avenue,- The Sweet convenience Store on Drayton Road.
With the 48 initial recycling points, 45817 houses were located in the 500meter range. After these suggestions, it was noticed that 59,556 households were now located in the 500meter threshold. This is detailed in the table below;Behind Queen Alexandra Hospital54017Shore Haven Parking Lot54320Nightingale Court, Havant Road54983New Inn, Havant Road55808Cycle World, London Road56606Dob’s Diner, Copnor Road58068Lidl, Goldsmith Avenue59005Sweetland Convinience Store, Drayton Road59556Table 1: List of the number additional houses covered by extra glass recycling points.845672Fig 12: A screenshot of Portsmouth City after the 8 new recycling points have been added and the 500metre threshold applied.Since the need is for 5 new points, I advise the last 3 points can be ignored and the first 5 utilized by the Portsmouth City Council as these cover more houses.845672PART BRASTER ANALYSIS FOR MULTI-CRITERIA SITE SELECTION – A MILITARY SCENARIOFig 13: A 1:100,000 scale briefing map for Operation Brown TrousersTo create the above map, the author made use of the toolbox, using a good number of commands but mostly the reclass, to reclassify cells.
Other ArcGIS commands which were used include; the slope, the viewshed, the buffer and the identity overlay.845672More importantly, to determine the drop zone, many criteria’s had to be considered. Some of these include:• The degree of the slope,• The distance from main roads, cables and urban areas,• The observation posts,• As well as woodland or marshy areas / the sea.A helicopter landing zone should not be located close to the above listed areas.Fig 14: Shows the Slope of the entire area in different shades of black845672To locate a drop zone, we have to make sure it is not on a steep slope, but on flat ground. Thus the suggestion was made on the darkest shade of the slope which represents the flattest ground.PS: The dark green block is the suggested drop zone.
Fig 15: Shows the hill shade and altitude of the entire area with different shades of Blue and the observation postsAs we can notice on the above map, the altitude varies a lot, ranging from 0 to 600 meters. The drop zone was therefore suggested to be on the lowest altitude which is extremely safe for landing helicopters. This area is represented by the sky blue colour.845672Furthermore Observation posts had to be avoided because they make use of radars with which they get information from far distances. A landing zone should not be located at the sight of enemies. Therefore the HLZ was suggested far from these four points.Fig 16: Shows other layers that were taken into consideration for the creation of the operation brown trouser map.
Other layers such as main roads (depicted with the red lines), Tracks (depicted with the yellow lines), Coast lines, Cables, Urban areas (depicted with the colour pink) and Marshy Areas (depicted with the colour olive green) were all taken into consideration for the creation of this map.845672A drop zone has to be located far from this areas because there is the need for space to land helicopters and also for the safety of the population against noise pollution as well as accidents.LimitationsNevertheless, my final results had limitations because of the following;- The Sources were not up to date. The coastline data dates from 2002, the main roads, tracks, cables and Land cover were last revised in 2008.
The altitude data was last revised in 2001.- Therefore with the layer data not been up to date, we are therefore not sure how accurate our information is. All of these are subject to change over the years.
– In addition, the viewshed analysis tool which was used was the viewshed. If the Observer Points was used, we would have been able to identify specifically which observer points are visible from each raster surface location, meanwhile with the viewshed we can only know the number of observers that can see a given location.- Moreover, buffer zones were only created around Main roads, Cables and Urban areas. The results would have been more easily achieved and more accurate if buffer zones were also created around marshy areas and the coastlines.845672PART CDERIVING RUNOFF CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RIVER VALENCY USING ARCGIS HYDROLOGY TOOLSFig 17: Shows the Altitude, Hill Shaded layer and Strahler Stream Vector of the River Valency of Boscastle.845672Fig 18: Is a complete model diagram which includes the catchment statistics table for slope and altitude, Strahler Stream Order Vector Layer and Hill Shading Layer. This was built by the author on Model Builder.845672The above model was run on the Palmer’s Brook Catchment (IoW2mDTM in the IoWDB geodatabase), and the following was the result.
Fig 19: Shows the Altitude, Hill Shaded layer and Strahler Stream Vector of Palmers Brook.845672The River Valency is known to have a nonporous geology and a very reactive catchment. This mean that her catchment responds swiftly to precipitation, and subsides quickly too. River Valency flows through the Boscastle village which is the confluence of 3 rivers, namely: Paradise, Jordan and Valency.On the other hand, most of Palmer’s Brook flows in wandering manner through a natural copse (woodland).- River Valency is more prone to flood than Palmer’s Brook for the fact that it has many steep slopes. These steep slopes cause water to move very quickly on the exterior.- Furthermore, River Valency flows over impermeable rocks.
The water can therefore not transude these rock layers. This is not the case of Plamer’s Brook.Fig 20: Is an Image of the Flood that occurred on River Valency in Boscastle in 2004.- In addition, the fact most of Palmer’s Brook meanders through a woodland, make it less susceptible to floods. This is so because the trees serve as canopies, they absorb part of the water through their leaves and roots.
Unlike River Valency which flows mostly through a village, here, constructions on the sides of the river has added to the amount of sealed surfaces.845672Fig 21: Is an Image of Palmer’s Brook in the Isle of Wight.- Also, for the fact that Palmer’s Brook (6.4km) is shorter than River Valency (8.
3km) it therefore won’t flood as much.- River Valency received in 3hrs the amount of rain it usually curtails in a month (more than 60mm). This was intense.
It was a major factor of the flood in 2004. The intensity of rainfall also plays a huge role in flooding.845672PART DDIGITAL TERRAIN MODELLING USING SURFER FOR WINDOWSFig 22: Is a map of Bembridge, Isle of Wight845672The map above was created using the Golden Surface Software as an introduction to Digital Terrain Modelling.For the sake of this project, we calculated the Mean and the Standard Deviation to look out for the systematic errors as well as the random errors. We did this using the residual. A residual is the difference between the Z value (Height or Altitude) in a data file and the interpolated Z value on a gridded surface.
The result for the Mean error was a slightly negative value, precisely: -0.03 and our Standard Deviation (random error) was 0.49.Below are possible reasons why;Possible Random ErrorsPossible Systematic ErrorsWeather condition during data collectionEffectiveness of Airborne Lidar used to collect dataThe homogeneity in vegetation typeMishandling of Lidar InstrumentThe Surface of the TerrainThe electronic scale was set too high at the time of the readingTable 2: Showing possible random and systematic errorsWe can therefore conclude from our results that the magnitudes of positive and negative values are quite similar thus the neutral Standard Deviation value which was derived. Perhaps if more data was recorded, these random errors won’t be.845672Fig 23: Shows the hill shading, layer tinting and contouring over the San Paulo Site.
845672Fig 24: Shows the application of break lines over the San Paulo River845672Fig 25: Shows the de-trended surface of San Paulo River.845672REFERENCES? Glass Recycling UK Website. Retrieved from http://www.glassrecycle.
co.uk/.? Leeds City Council Website. Retrieved from http://www.
leeds.gov.uk/residents/Pages/Glass-recycling.aspx.? Stack Exchange Incorporation, Geographic Information Systems.
Retrieved from https://gis.stackexchange.com/questions/52221/difference-between-viewshed-and-observer-points? R. H. B. Exell, 2001.
Practical Maths, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi. Retrieved from https://www.physics.umd.edu/courses/Phys276/Hill/Information/Notes/ErrorAnalysis.html? C.
Kendall, J. J. McDonnell. Elsevier.
Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology. pg 368.? T. Bond (2013) The River Management Blog. Retrieved from https://therivermanagementblog.
wordpress.com/2013/04/03/the-story-of-boscastle-2004-a-geomorphic-perspective/? Island Rivers, All about rivers on the Isle of Wight. (2017) Retrieved from http://www.islandrivers.org.uk/the-rivers/east-wight/palmers-brook/? The Wonders of Astronomy and Geography (2014) Retrieved from https://vamoswearegolden.wordpress.
com/? River Flooding Management Revision 1 and Revision 3. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/water_rivers/river_flooding_management_rev3.shtml