Last updated: June 26, 2019
Topic: Food
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Vitamin C Essay, Research Paper

Introduction

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In this probe, I will analyze by titration, the vitamin C ( ascorbic acid ) content of 7 different types of fruit juices purchased from a supermarket. I will prove for the presence of vitamin C utilizing an organic index solution called DCPIP ( dichlorophenol indophenol ) , which will be reduced to a colorless signifier from dark blue, at the presence of vitamin C. Reduction is where a molecule losingss an O molecule, additions a H atom or additions negatrons. Oxidation is the opposite, i.e. additions an O molecule, loses a H atom or loses negatrons. The sum of juices used to turn the DCPIP colourless will be recorded and the vitamin C content will be determined by mensurating the sum of beads of a known vitamin C concentration solution, used to turn the DCPIP colourless.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C plays a critical portion in the right operation of the life organic structure ( most animate beings synthesise their ain vitamin C. we don t ) . There are 4 ways in which vitamin C well benefits the organic structure:

1. Antioxidant. Oxidation of hemoglobin in the blood is necessary to last, but excessively much oxidization can be damaging to tissues and variety meats. Vitamin C prevents excessively much oxidization from happening.

2. Homeostasis. When the organic structure is exposed to emphasize, the adrenal expansive utilizations vitamin C to bring forth epinephrine in response to the emphasis by which blood will be moved to the musculuss from the digestive system, etc. This is for flight, fright or battle.

3. Collagen. This is the chief constituent of sinews, ligaments, tegument, bone, dentition, and gristle, in add-on to being the land substance between cells. Inadequate vitamin C degrees will take to weakening of these countries taking to clamber lesions, blood vas breakability, relaxation of gums and dentitions, features of scorbutus.

4. Immune system. Vitamin C is involved in the production of white blood cells, which are the chief defense mechanism against disease. Without vitamin C, the organic structure will be really susceptible to disease.

Vitamin C has besides been linked in the bar of bosom disease and malignant neoplastic disease.

List of equipment

Volumetric flask to mensurate out the right volume of DCPIP.

Beaker, 1 to incorporating the juice you wish to prove and 1 for the DCPIP solution.

2ml syringe, to mensurate out the DCPIP.

1ml syringe, to mensurate out the measure of juice added to the DCPIP.

10 trial tubing, into which the DCPIP and the juice is added.

Test tubing rack, to keep the trial tubing.

Electronic balance to burden the right sum of DCPIP.

Method

The experiment was performed at room temperature.

The juices used were:

Orange juice

Grapefruit juice

Lemon juice

Pineapple juice

Mixed fruit juice

Cranberry and raspberry juice

Apple juice

The first undertaking was to mensurate out 1 % DCPIP solution in the volumetric flask and to do certain it is wholly assorted ( distilled H2O is used so non to consequence the truth of the experiment and a squeeze bottle can be used to exceed up the measuring for farther truth ) . The degree was read from the underside of the semilunar cartilage. The DCPIP can so be put in to a beaker to ease the filling of the panpipes ( DCPIP must non be left nightlong to avoid oxidization which may impact the consequences ) .

2ml of DCPIP are so put into each trial tubing utilizing the 2ml syringe.

The 1ml syringe is so filled with the 0.05 % vitamin C solution and is added bead by bead to each tubing separately until the DCPIP has been reduced and the bluish coloring material has disappeared. The sum of 0.05 % vitamin C solution needed to cut down the DCPIP is recorded. This process was repeated 10 times to supply an equal degree of truth to the experiment.

The trial was so performed on the fruit juices of unknown vitamin C content.

The relevancy of proving the 0.05 % vitamin C solution is to find the vitamin C concentration in the fruit juices by spliting the sum of 0.05 % vitamin C solution needed to cut down the DCPIP, by the sum of fruit juice needed to cut down the DCPIP. This is so multiplied by 0.05 ( the known concentration of the first solution ) . By making this, the vitamin C content of the fruit juices can be determined.

Any troubles or anomalousnesss were besides recorded.

Calculation illustration:

Volume of 0.05 % vitamin C solution needed to cut down DCPIP = 0.39ml

Volume of orange juice needed to cut down DCPIP = 1.55ml

Vitamin C content of orange juice = volume of 0.05 % vit. C solution X 0.05 %

Volume of orange juice

= 0.39 Tens 0.05

1.55

= 0.013 %

Questionnaire

Put a tick in the box beside the juice that you think has the highest vitamin C content, and a cross in the box beside the juice with the lowest vitamin C content.

Orange juice Apple juice

Lemon juice Pineapple juice

Grapefruit juice mixed fruit juice

Cranberry and raspberry juice

Questionnaire

The questionnaire was given to a sample of 50 people to acquire an thought on general ideas on fruit juices vitamin C content.

Juice with the most vitamin Degree centigrade:

52 % orange juice

34 % lemon juice

10 % assorted fruit juice

2 % cranberry and raspberry juice

2 % Citrus paradisi juice

( 0 % for the remainder )

Juices with the least vitamin Degree centigrade:

32 % apple juice

28 % cranberry and raspberry

24 % Ananas comosus juice

10 % assorted fruit juice

6 % lemon juice

( 0 % for the remainder )

By and large, people believe the citrous fruit fruits contain the most vitamin C.

Graph demoing questionnaire consequences

Juices with the most vitamin C content

Juice a = orange juice

Juice B = lemon juice

Juice c = assorted fruit juice

Juice vitamin D = cranberry and raspberry juice

Juice vitamin E = Citrus paradisi juice

Juices with the least vitamin C content

Juice a = apple juice

Juice B = cranberry and raspberry juice

Juice c = Ananas comosus juice

Juice vitamin D = assorted fruit juice

Juice vitamin E = lemon juice

Students T-test 1

Calculating the important difference between the agencies of orange juice and pineapple juice. To see if there is more or less than 95 % assurance that the difference between the agencies has non occurred by opportunity entirely.

Orange ju

ice mean = 1.55

Pineapple juice mean = 6.43

Difference between them = 4.88

Standard divergence of orange juice = Sx =0.0750

Sx2 = 0.005625

Sx2 = 0.0005625

Nitrogen

Standard divergence of pineapple juice = Sy = 0.2744

Sy2 = 0.075295

Sy2 = 0.00753

Nitrogen

Sx2 + Sy2 = 0.0080925

N N

Standard mistake = 0.08996

T = 54.247

There is 95 % assurance that the difference has non occurred by opportunity entirely.

In fact, there is 99.9 % assurance that the difference has non occurred by opportunity.

Students T-test 2

Calculating the important difference between the agencies of orange juice and Citrus paradisi juice. To see if there is more or less than 95 % assurance that the difference between the agencies has non occurred by opportunity entirely.

Orange juice mean = 1.55

Grapefruit juice mean = 0.93

Difference between them = 0.62

Standard divergence of orange juice = Sx =0.0750

Sx2 = 0.005625

Sx2 = 0.0005625

Nitrogen

Standard divergence of Citrus paradisi juice = Sy = 0.0432

Sy2 = 0.0018662

Sy2 = 0.0001866

Nitrogen

Sx2 + Sy2 = 0.00749

N N

Standard mistake = 0.2737

T = 22.653

There is 95 % assurance that the difference has non occurred by opportunity entirely.

In fact, there is 99.9 % assurance that the difference has non occurred by opportunity.

Analysis

During the experiment, there was a job because one of the volumetric flasks had been filled with an wrong sum of DCPIP. This greatly affected the consequences. Fortunately, the job was fleetly rectified and the experiments were tested once more with the right DCPIP volume. This job could hold been avoided with more attention and attending put into the measurement of the DCPIP.

When the apple juice was tested, I found that after adding 15ml of juice to 2ml of 1 % DCPIP, there was no alteration. 1ml was tested, but still there was no alteration. Finally, 0.125ml of DCPIP was used in order for the complete decrease of the DCPIP. This change decreased the truth of the consequences because really little volumes of DCPIP had to be measured out.

The standard divergence was calculated for the consequences obtained. This measures the spread of the single measurings about the mean. The larger the spread, the larger the divergence. The consequences found had comparatively little standard divergences except for the apple juice. This had a significantly higher standard divergence because the setup was non accurate plenty to mensurate such low degrees of vitamin C. More repeats could hold been made with less sums of DCPIP to cut down the spread and increase the truth. The degrees of assurance found were 99.9 % that difference between the two agencies were non by opportunity entirely.

The assorted fruit juice and cranberry and raspberry juice ( the two highest consequences ) , had added vitamin C. The carton did non province how much vitamin C was added so it was non possible to let for the add-on. This means that the consequences did non demo how much vitamin C is in those two juices, but how much is in the cartons. Vitamin C is added to some juice as an antioxidant to forestall the impairment of the substance. This means that the cranberry and raspberry juice and the assorted fruit juice did non hold sufficient vitamin C in it originally, so more had to be added.

The lemon juice found to hold low vitamin C content. However, it contained preservatives ( e.g. E220 V E227 ) to forestall the growing of any bacteriums and to be able to last a long clip without decay. This saving may hold affected the consequences but damaging the vitamin C in the juice. Besides, adding preservatives may forestall the decay of the juice, but it may non forestall the dislocation of the vitamin C. The modern diet may miss vitamin C because most produce is preserved.

Wayss in which to better:

Make more repeats on different makes of juice in order to acquire a broader set of consequences.

Use newly squeezed juices so non to incorporate preservatives.

Decision

This experiment has shown the vitamin C content of a little assortment of juices, but different trade names contain different sums of vitamin C so it has non proved a great trade. A more extended probe has to be carried out in order to acquire a better thought of the general tendencies in vitamin C content in fruit juices.

I found from the information that I collected that my vitamin C reading were a great trade higher than the informations shown in the tabular array ( Food Science, Nutrition and Health ) . This is likely from fluctuations in process and the juices used. Their method in mensurating the vitamin C content of juices could be really much different and so differences between the two experiments can happen.

Blackcurrant juice was traveling to be tested because it is a well-known, non-citrus fruit drink, with a high vitamin C content. The ground why this trial was non performed on this juice was because of its coloring material. It would hold been highly hard to accurately mensurate when all the DCPIP had been reduced to its colourless signifier because of blackcurrants deep coloring material.

The sum of vitamin C in different diets can change enormously. In MEDCs ( more economically developed states ) , the vitamin C content may somewhat under the right sum because of saving techniques ( explained earlier ) , but the ability to import fruits with high vitamin C content, and nutrient addendums ( vitamin tablets ) make up for that deficiency. But, in LEDCs ( less economically developed states ) , where importing of fruit and nutrient addendums are scarce, there is a high lack of vitamin C.

By and large, people do non understand the necessity of vitamin C ( 4 factors explained earlier ) and the effects of its lack ( scorbutus ) . The mean individual with a well balanced diet will be in the necessary demand of vitamin C V between 75-100mg per twenty-four hours. However, a individual with an imbalanced diet, may be under this degree, e.g. 30mg of vitamin C per twenty-four hours. This will cut down the degrees of vitamin C in the organic structure finally ensuing in scorbutus. Fortunately, for a great trade of people, a batch of nutrient contains vitamin C, but its lack could be reduced if people learned about its importance in the right operation of the human organic structure.

Bibliography

Practical Biology for Advanced Level ( Michael Roberts, Tim King and Michael Reiss ) Nelson

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cforyourself.com/overview/primer

Microsoft Word 97

Food Science, Nutrition and Health ( Brian A Fox and Allan G Cameron )