Crying By John Donne Essay, Research Paper
A Valediction: for Crying by John Donne In John Donne & # 8217 ; s & # 8220 ; A Valediction: for Weeping, & # 8221 ; the speakerconsoles his lover beforeleaving on a sea ocean trip and implore her non to shout. Crying, the speakertells his lover this poem atthe docks before he boards his ship traveling abroad. Donne, whopioneered ( though ne’er coinedthe term ) the & # 8220 ; metaphysical amour propre & # 8221 ; uses a spherical image as thecentral metaphor in his poem.When Donne uses sarcasm, paradox, and hyperbole including the usage ofround images such as: coins, Earths, and cryings he strengthens the spherical amour propre. Bycomparing two & # 8220 ; looking & # 8221 ; antonyms like cryings and love as his amour propre, Donne uses thespherical image as the centralparadox in & # 8220 ; A Valediction: Of Weeping. & # 8221 ; Donne opens the verse form with the talker shouting while speaking tohis lover before hisdeparture abroad. His first spherical images are in the first stanza, and they are cryings and coins: & # 8220 ; Let me pour forth My cryings before thy face whilst I stay here, For thy face coins them, and thy cast they bear, And by this coinage they are something deserving, & # 8221 ; ( 1-4 ) Both the coins and his cryings have & # 8220 ; worth, & # 8221 ; actual and figurativevalues severally. His cryings fallfrom his face because he hurts for go forthing, something no sum ofcoins can pay to alleviate.Like coins being stamped out of a sheet of metal, his cryings arepressed from his eyes. Becausewater reflects her image and cryings are made out of H2O, the stampimage has a dual meaningtoo. The cryings equal the lover. The coinage mentioned in line fourhas an expanded significance. Aset of pressed coins is a coinage as is the set of the talker & # 8217 ; stears, but the feeling on the coin ( the lover & # 8217 ; s face ) can besides be a coinage. As the beginning of the stanza opens with a round image, thesecond half of the stanzaincludes even more round images: & # 8220 ; For therefore they be Pregnant of thee ; Fruits of much heartache they are, emblems of more & # 8211 ; When a tear falls, that Thou falls which it bore, So 1000 and I are nil so, when on a diverse shore. & # 8221 ; ( 5-9 ) First, the talker says the cryings, because they bear the lover & # 8217 ; s face, are pregnant of her ( a sick, but circular image used for comparing ) . The fruit and the emblem areround images describingtheir cryings, the emblem symbolizes both the actual unit of ammunition image andthe lover & # 8217 ; s face ( the tearbears her & # 8220 ; emblem & # 8221 ; or face ) . As the tear bearing her image falls, the talker fears the stoping oftheir love if she cries, as the talker provinces: & # 8220 ; So thou and I arenothing so, when on a diverseshore & # 8221 ; ( 9 ) . In the 2nd stanza, the talker tries to convert herthat they are still together, evenwhen they are separated, and implore her non to cry. The 2nd stanza opens with a ball image organizing out of nothinginto a Earth. A workercan return & # 8220 ; a unit of ammunition ball. . .and rapidly make that, which was nil, all & # 8221 ; ( 12 ) . The Earth andtheir love represent all, because the Earth represents all of theentire universe, where every bit, the loveencompasses all of their single universes or domains. They, thelovers, have their ain universes, and like in & # 8220 ; The Good Morrow & # 8221 ; their two universes become one, where thepower of love binds the
two hemispheres ( in & # 8220 ; The Good Morrow & # 8221 ; ) or Earths ( in & # 8220 ; A Valediction: Of Weeping & # 8221 ; ) . Thespeaker goes on to c
ompare their love to the globe in the rest of thestanza: “So doth each tear Which thee doth wear, A globe, yea world, by that impression grow, Till thy tears mixed with mine do overflow This world; waters sent from thee, my heaven dissolv d so.” (14-18)Both of their tears flow into the same waters, and therefore are one. The speaker’s attitude ishypercritical during this stanza because he begs her not to cry, buthe still weeps as he proves inthe line “Till thy tears mixed with mine do overflow” (16). Byloving each other they becomeone. Donne used a flea to “mingle” the blood of the speaker and hislove in “The Flea,” joiningtheir bodily fluids and therefore they are one. The lover’s tearsflood the speaker’s world and/orheaven. The second and third stanzas are both pleas from the speakerto his lover to stop hercrying, for it destroys their worlds (which is the same world). In the third stanza the speaker uses more round images, the”spherical conceit,” bybringing the moon into his extended metaphor. By describing theirlove as “more than moon”(19), he promotes their love to a non-earthly or “holy” love (likethe “canonized” love in “TheCanonization”). They are above the human world in the celestialspheres. By placing the line”Draw not up seas to drown me in thy sphere” (20), he is in “hersphere” where her tears drownhim, and the moon by controlling the rising tide drowns him. Insteadof all the negativeconnotations (including many references to dying) associated withleaving, he beckons her tostop trying to turn the sea into a wild rage: “. . . but forbear/ Toteach the sea what it may do toosoon.” (20-21). In the conclusion of the third stanza Donne comparessighs to the wind on thesea as he does in “The Canonization” and “A Valediction: ForbiddingMourning.” The line,”Since thou and I sigh one another’s breath,” (25) further provesthat they live in the same world,where they cry into the same seas and breath the same breath. Hebegs his lover not to cry orsigh, because “Whoe’er sighs most is cruelest, and hastes the other’sdeath.” (26) As they sigh,their sighs create wind which upsets the water. The rough water, onwhich the speaker is sailing,could drown him. Donne’s mastery of comparison allows him to create an in-depthmetaphor comparingspherical images to two lover’s love. He uses some of the sameimages as he does in his otherpoems for example: holy love and tears in “The Canonization,” spheresin “A Valediction:Forbidding Mourning” and “The Sun Rising,” and two worlds becomingone in “The Good-Morrow” and “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning.” Also in the other valediction poem Donneincludes the line “No tear floods, nor sigh tempest move.” (6) Thisidea is mentioned in “AValediction: Of Weeping” too. In The New Princeton Encyclopedia ofPoetry and Poetics, theauthors, Alex Preminger and T.F. Brogan state in their definition ofMetaphysical poetry thatmetaphysical poets “[favor] a kind of imagery which requires themeditation of the intellect forfull comprehension, metaphysical poetry shows relatively no interestin sensuous imagery.”(767) Because Donne uses the simple round images to symbolize adeeper meaning, he has usedthe “metaphysical conceit” coupled with metaphor and paradox tocreate a complex love poem.