A H2O well is an digging or construction created in the land by delving, driving, drilling or boring to entree groundwater in belowground aquifers. The well H2O is drawn by an electric submergible pump, a trash pump, a perpendicular turbine pump, a manus pump or a mechanical pump ( e.g. from a water-pumping windmill ) . It can besides be drawn up utilizing containers, such as pails that are raised automatically or by manus. Typically, groundwater is of course clean and safe for ingestion. Because the overlying dirt Acts of the Apostless as a filter, groundwater is normally free of disease-causing micro-organisms. However, taint may happen following improper installing of good shells or caps, after a interruption in the shell or as a consequence of contaminated surface H2O come ining the well. Contamination can besides happen if Wellss are drilled in fractured bedrock without an equal bed of protective dirt and with less than the recommended minimal shell length. Ground H2O possibly constitutes the largest beginning of dug-well H2O [ 1 ] . It is located below the dirt surface and mostly contained in interstices of bedrocks, littorals, crushed rocks, and other interspaces through which precipitation infiltrates and percolates into the belowground aquifers due to gravity [ 2 ] . Harmonizing to Oni et Al [ 3 ] , land H2O is the H2O that has percolated downward from the land surface through the dirt pores and as such, it is non rather susceptible to pollution because most of the infective beings and many unwanted substances are removed by filtration action of dirt atoms. However, land H2O may go contaminated due to increase in concentration of dissolved minerals like Mg2+ , Ca2+ , K+ , etc [ 3 ] . The quest for improved H2O sanitation, good hygiene and a disease free environment is of paramount importance in keeping good wellness. Therefore, an entree to safe H2O, free from contaminations and infective beings will travel a long manner to bettering the well being of an single [ 4 ] .
In order to forestall unwellness, Wellss should be decently maintained and the H2O on a regular basis tested for the presence of microbic contaminations. Well H2O should besides be tested on occasion for possible inorganic and organic chemical contaminations. By and large, the extent of intervention required for H2O is determined by the quality of the natural H2O beginning [ 5 ] .
Proper siting, location, building and care of Wellss will assist to minimise the likeliness of taint. Quality of H2O obtained from a well can be influenced by many local and regional factors. Some of these factors are natural, and others are the consequence of human activity. Although there are a broad assortment of possible factors, some of the more common factors can be evaluated through the undermentioned trials:
The imbibing qualities of dug well H2O are mostly dependent on the concentration of biological, chemical and physical contaminations every bit much as environmental and human activities [ 6 ] . Chemicals pollute H2O supply through industrial procedure and agrochemical applications while physical contaminations result from eroding and disposal of solid wastes [ 1 ] .
Guaranting that H2O quality in aquatic environments remains within natural scopes is indispensable for keeping feasible, abundant and diverse communities of beings. Peoples have specific H2O quality demands for imbibing H2O, diversion, agribusiness and industry, although the specific H2O quality demands vary by sector. Degradation of H2O quality erodes the handiness of H2O for worlds and ecosystems, increasing fiscal costs for human users, and diminishing species diverseness and copiousness of resident communities. This survey is aimed at finding the quality of H2O obtained from Wellss within and around a cement mill and how it can be improved upon and made utile for human ingestion and usage.
The survey country, Gboko is located in Benue province, North Central Nigeria. Situated on longitude 9oE and latitude 7.0oN and 7.50oN, Gboko is a dumbly populated country inhabited dominantly by average-life inhabitants. The dwellers of the small towns around the mill are peasant husbandmans. Heavy Mining activities are carried out around the mill under survey. Production dust is besides released into the atmosphere alongside the heavy vehicular traffic activities within and around the mill premises.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Water samples were collected from four Wellss around the cement mill and labeled A, B, C, D and E. Locations B, C, D and E were sited in colonies around the mill while location A was sited within the mill premises. Care was taken to guarantee that no inadvertent taints occurred during sampling and that samples were a representation of the H2O to be examined. Well H2O samples were collected in clean plastic containers by pulling H2O from the located Wellss utilizing a clean plastic pail. Some of the sample parametric quantities were instantly analyzed and the staying samples were stored in a icebox for farther analysis.
Physical analyses of the samples were carried out by physical observation of the visual aspect, coloring material, gustatory sensation, smell and turbidness. These were determined by the usage of centripetal rating panel as adopted by Edema et al [ 7 ] . The samples for chemical analyses were refrigerated and analyzed within 24hours. All plastics and glass wares utilized were prewashed with detersive H2O solution, rinsed with tap H2O and soaked for 48 hours in 50 % HNO3, so rinsed exhaustively with distilled-deionised H2O. They were so air dried in a dust free environment.. Chemical analyses were done harmonizing to AOAC [ 8 ] and Food and Agricultural Organization FAO [ 9 ] .
All containers for bacteriological analysis in add-on to old intervention, were sterilized in an sterilizer at 121oC for 15minutes. Microbiological analyses were carried out utilizing the multiple tubing technique as described by Uzuegbu and Eke [ 10 ] .
All chemical and microbiological analyses were done in triplicates.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
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Turbidity ( NTU )
Temperature ( oC )
Table 1: Physical Parameters of Well Water around a Cement Factory.
NTU-Nephelometric Turbidity Units.
Ts – Taste Od – Smell, nCr – Not Clear
Table 2: Bacteriological Analysis of Well Water around a Cement Factory.
Coliform Count ( CFU )
E. Coli ( CFU )
Table 3: Chemical Parameters of Well Water around a Cement Factory.
Hardness as CaCO3 ( mg/L )
Calcium ( Ca2+ ) ( mg/L )
Magnesium ( Mg2+ ) ( mg/L )
Chloride ( Cl- ) ( mg/L )
Sulphate ( SO42- ) ( mg/L )
Nitrate ( NO3- ) ( mg/L )
CO2 ( mg/L )
Consequences are represented as average A±standard divergence
Turbidity refers to H2O lucidity. The greater the sum of suspended solids in the H2O, the murkier it appears, and the higher the measured turbidness. Higher turbidness degrees are frequently associated with higher degrees of disease-causing micro-organisms such as viruses, parasites and some bacteriums and dissolved chemicals. [ 11 ] . Water samples of A, B, C, D and E were 103, 2, 15, 46 and 1NTU severally. This shows that merely Wells B and E autumn within the WHO criterion.
The temperatures of the sample collected from the four Wellss A, B, C, D and E were found to be 23.2oC, 21.9oC, 22.6oC, 22.5oC and 21.7oC severally. This falls good within the WHO criterion of between 20 – 32oC.
In H2O, a little figure of H2O ( H2O ) molecules dissociate and form H ( H+ ) and hydroxyl ( OH- ) ions. If the comparative proportion of the H ions is greater than the hydroxyl ions, so the H2O is defined as being acidic. If the hydroxyl ions dominate, so the H2O is defined as being alkalic [ 12 ] . The H ions come ining a drainage basin in rainwater are neutralized by carbonate and silicate minerals as H2O percolates through dirts. This neutralisation capacity in soils determines whether or non acerb precipitation will do H2O quality impacts in having H2O organic structures. The ability of stones and dirts in any given drainage basin to buffer the sourness of rainwater is related to the abode clip of H2O in the dirt every bit good as the degrees of Ca carbonate, hydrogen carbonate, and silicate minerals [ 13 ] [ 14 ] . Samples A, B, C, D and E had values as 7.1, 7.8, 7.3, 7.4 and 7.1 severally. Even though these autumn within WHO range of 6.5-8.5, it indicates some degree of alkalinity.
Hardness as CaCO3.
Natural beginnings of hardness chiefly are limestone, which are dissolved by leaching rainwater made acidic by dissolved C dioxide [ 15 ] . Industrial beginnings include discharges from operating and abandoned mines. When hardness exceeds 18 mg/l, it by and large causes jobs, and a H2O softener should be considered. Water softened to zero hardness is caustic. It is hence desirable to intermix a proportion of non-softened H2O with highly soft H2O [ 16 ] . When H2O incorporating hydrogen carbonate or “ impermanent ” hardness is heated, C dioxide is driven off, change overing the hydrogen carbonate into carbonates which precipitate to organize the difficult graduated table found in cooking utensils, pipes, hot H2O armored combat vehicles, and boilers. This graduated table reduces the capacity of pipes to transport H2O and does non convey heat good [ 16 ] . The mean hardness of the samples were 160.33mg/L, 100.33mg/L, 80.33mg/L, and 120.33mg/L severally for Well A, B, C, D and E severally. This indicates that sample A is difficult, B, C and E are reasonably difficult while D is soft. Even though these autumn within the WHO demand of 100-250mg/L, A has much gustatory sensation and would necessitate much soap to organize soapsuds during rinsing, likewise B, C and E. The H2O samples of good D would necessitate small soap to organize lather and hence is good for rinsing and imbibing. Besides household equipment, such as aluminum pots, will be protected from scaling [ 3 ] .
Nitrate and Nitrite occur of course every bit ions as parts of Nitrogen Cycle. Concentrations of nitrate and nitrite can besides be high in H2O as a consequence of taint from agricultural run-off ( fertilisers ) , run off from garbage mopess, and taint of H2O with human and carnal wastes. The chief hazard from nitrate and nitrites is methemoglobinemia or ‘blue-baby ‘ syndrome, to which babes under 0.5-1 twelvemonth are more prone [ 17 ] [ 18 ] . Nitrate in imbibing H2O has besides been linked to human wellness jobs such as tummy malignant neoplastic disease and negative generative results [ 12 ] . High nitrate concentrations have besides been linked to lower productiveness in farm animal [ 12 ] . The average Nitrate values are 38.03mg/L, 45.97mg/L, 38.03mg/L, 46.53mg/L and 24.7mg/L for Wells A, B, C, D and E severally. Water samples from Wells B and D are high and close to the maximal contaminant degree ( MCL ) of ( 50mg/L as NO3- ) as recommended by the World Health Organization ( WHO ) [ 19 ] .
250 mg/l for chloride is the degree above which the gustatory sensation of the H2O may go obnoxious to the consumer. The salty gustatory sensation might non be evident even up to higher degree of chloride every bit high as 1000mg/l [ 17 ] . In add-on to the inauspicious gustatory sensation effects, high chloride concentration degrees in the H2O contribute to the impairment of domestic plumbing, H2O warmers, and municipal water company equipment [ 16 ] . High chloride concentrations in the H2O may besides be associated with the presence of Na in imbibing H2O. Elevated concentration degrees of Na may hold an inauspicious wellness consequence on normal, healthy individuals. Chlorides with Na cations have a noticeable salty gustatory sensation, but if combined with the cation Ca or manganese, [ 17 ] . Increased degree of chlorides in H2O addition its corrosivity and hence an addition in the degrees of metal in the H2O. WHO [ 19 ] does non supply a wellness based guideline figure for chloride, but notes that there may be a noticeable gustatory sensation above 250 mg/l [ 17 ] . The Chloride concentrations of samples in A, B, C, D and E are 21.80mg/L, 23.56mg/L, 37.64mg/L, 33.64mg/L and 67.81mg/L severally. These all autumn within the WHO recommendation of 250mg/L.
Sulfates ( SO42- )
High concentrations of sulphate in imbibing Waterss have three effects: ( I ) H2O incorporating appreciable sums of sulphate ( SO42- ) tends to organize difficult graduated tables in boilers and heat money changers ; ( two ) sulfates cause gustatory sensation effects ; and ( three ) sulfates can do laxative effects with inordinate consumption [ 16 ] . Not many of the occupants have experienced frequent diarrhoea. This may be because, the laxative consequence of sulphates is normally noted in transeunt users of a H2O supply because people who are accustomed to high sulphate degrees in imbibing H2O have no inauspicious response [ 16 ] . Diarrhea can be induced at sulphate degrees greater than 500 mg/l but typically near 750 mg/l [ 16 ] . The concentrations of 48.0mg/L, 43.0mg/L, 13.0mg/L, 13.0mg/L and 21.33mg/L for A, B, C, D and E severally show that the sulfate degrees of all the Wells autumn within the WHO recommendation.
Drinking H2O is tested for the presence of two groups of bacteriums, entire coliform bacteriums and E.Coli bacteriums. Results show the figure of bacteriums of each group in 100 milliliter of H2O sample.A Total coliform bacteriums are ever present in animate being wastes and sewerage but are besides found in dirt and vegetation.A E.Coli bacteriums are merely found in enteric contents of warm-blooded animals.A E.Coli bacteriums tend to decease more quickly outside the organic structure ; accordingly their presence in H2O indicates comparatively recent contamination.A The presence of entire coliform and the absence of E.Coli bacteriums may bespeak a surface H2O taint or a more distant sewerage taint. The consequences of the analyses showed that D and E have higher taints of 151 Coliform bacterium counts ; 18 E. Coli bacterium counts and 127 coliform bacteriums ; 9 E. Coli bacterium counts severally while A, B, and C have 40 Coliform ; 19E.Coli, 52Coliform ; 10E.Coli, and 35Coliform ; 5E.Coli CFU severally. The prevalence of coliform indicates that the taint of the well Waterss is due largely to dirt and flora than human waste. This H2O is non fit for imbibing.
The consequence shows that the Sulphate ( SO42- ) degrees, Nitrate ( NO3- ) , Chlorides, pH and Temperature of all the samples fall within the WHO recommended degrees while all the Wellss examined had odour, gustatory sensation, high turbidness except two ( above WHO recommendation ) . Hardness as CaCO3 exceeded the WHO recommendation of 250mg/L. The microbiological analyses of the well H2O did non run into the WHO recommendations. The Wellss are non good for imbibing but can be used for rinsing even though much soap will be required to organize soapsuds.
Alternate beginnings of imbibing H2O should be made available to the people populating in the industrial country so as to heighten good wellness.
Consistent analyses should be carried out on the H2O and environment to safeguard the wellness of the people.
Frequent wellness consciousness Programmes should be carried out in order to educate the people populating in these countries on basic hygiene and general stairss to heightening good wellness.
Air pollution control steps should be taken to heighten a pollution free environment.
The inordinate release of Carbon II oxide ( CO ) and Carbon IV oxide ( CO2 ) should be stopped to avoid nursery consequence and subsequent wellness jeopardies attach toing it.
Good excavation patterns should be insisted upon so as to safeguard the environment and ecosystem.
Corporate Organizations ‘ duty to host Communities should be insisted upon by the Government in order to safeguard the wellness and better the public assistance of such communities.