One certain beginning of a permanent competitory advantage among concerns and administrations is knowledge, most particularly in an economic system where the lone certainty is uncertainness ( Nonaka, 1991 ; Sharratt and Usoro, 2003 and Martinez-Canas et al 2011 ) . In the same position, Alvis and Hartmann ( 2008 ) acknowledge cognition as a cardinal beginning of competitory advantage. However, Dasgupta and Gupta ( 2007 ) ; Sandhawalia and Dalcher ( 2011 ) argue that it is non the bing cognition in a house that is the beginning of competitory advantage, but instead the ability to use that cognition efficaciously to make new cognition. Similarly, Alavi and Leidner ( 2001 ) are of the sentiment that the right combination and application of cognition generates the coveted result of cognition. Knowledge of the market environment, product/brands or the targeted clients is required for an administration to win. There has been a turning treatment on the importance of cognition direction within the society ( Nonaka, 1991 and Martensson, 2000 ) . For an administration to take the lead and keep a competitory border, it has to efficaciously pull off, develop, retain and use its employees ‘ cognition capablenesss ( Rowley, 1999 and Martensson, 2000 ) .
Administrations are bit by bit acknowledging that engineering based competitory advantages are impermanent, and the lone sustainable competitory advantages they have are their employees ( Martensson, 2010 ; Sandhawalia and Dalcher 2011 ) . Dimattia and Oder ( 1997 ) as cited in Martensson ( 2000 ) argue that downsizing and technological development are the two chief cardinal displacement responsible for the growing in the field of cognition direction. This is supported by Delen and Al-Hawamdeh ( 2009 ) who are besides of the sentiment that the increasing involvement in cognition find, transportation and direction can be credited to factors which include technological promotion ( Chen et al, 2010 ) , awaited important loss in the work force ; as some employees get to the retirement age and the necessity for an administration to efficaciously use their rational capital to remain in front of the competition. Lack of ability to gaining control and integrate information shacking in diverse beginning, some which are internal and external to the administration are some of the major jobs that organisation faces today ( Delen and Al-Hawamdeh, 2009 ) .
Previous surveies have examined knowledge acquisition among SMEs in states such as Japan, UK, India and China ( Anthony et al, 2001 ; Gils and Zwart, 2004 ; Chawla and Joshi, 2011 ) , but a few in Africa and even fewer published article in Nigeria. This research places particular accents on look intoing the barriers to IT-based cognition acquisition among SMEs in Nigeria.
Knowledge acquisition in SMEs is an of import facet to be studied as SMEs are considered anchor of many economic systems around the universe ( Apulu and Latham, 2009 ) , and besides possess great flexibleness to accommodate to alterations due to their size ( Cantu et al, 2009 )
Research Aim and aims
The purpose of this thesis is to look into the barriers to IT-based cognition acquisition in Nigerian SMEs. The Objectives to assist transport out this purpose is as follows:
To place the factors restricting IT based cognition acquisition in Nigerian SMEs
To understand the importance of IT in knowledge acquisition in Nigerian SMEs
What is Knowledge direction?
Knowledge is an unquantifiable resource that can be located in the head of the proprietor ( Sharrat and Usoro, 2003 ) . Knowledge that is non used in the right context is merely mere information ( Davenport et al, 1998 ) on the other manus, information develops into cognition if it is interpreted decently and given the right context ( Nonaka et al, 2000 ) . Botha ( 2003 ) described knowledge direction as a direction operation that creates and manages the flow of cognition within an administration to guarantee that cognition is expeditiously and efficaciously used for both the short term and long term of an administration. In the same position, Rowley ( 1999, pp. 418 ) describe cognition direction as the development and development of knowledge assets of an administration with a position of fostering administration aims. Similarly, Dasgupta and Gupta ( 2007, pp. 208 ) define cognition direction as a system that promotes coaction, environment for capturing and sharing bing cognition, creates chances to bring forth new cognition and provides the tools and attacks needed to use what the administration knows and its attempt to run into its strategic ends. An administration needs to place the most valuable cognition among the employees and make ways to increase and pull off it. For any administration to win in pull offing cognition, cognition coevals, codification and transportation has to be a major facet for the administration.
Knowledge coevals refers to organizational processs to increase the cognition stock of the administration ( Davenport and Prusak, 1998 ) . Knowledge coevals consist of acquisition, merger, version, dedication and edifice cognition webs ( Choo, 2002 ) . These scopes from engaging persons with valuable cognition, giving resources for cognition acquisition, accommodating to altering environment status and eventually locating people who portion the same work involvement in and outside the administration which besides link with ‘hiring persons with valuable cognition ‘ as stated above.
Knowledge codification by and large involves turn uping person with the needed cognition and besides happening person who is interested in what knowledge the codifier has ( Choo, 2002 ) . This can be seen in some administrations in Nigeria tagged ‘mentor ‘ and ‘mentee ‘ plan.
Knowledge transportation is largely done in an unstructured mode which is majorly achieved via personal conversation with co-workers and friends ( Cantu et al, 2009 ) . Topographic points such as java Stationss, talk suites, cognition carnivals and bars have become a topographic point for cognition sharing and transportation ( Choo, 2002 )
One of the ways to minimise cognition loss is to heighten cognition gaining control and rhenium usage within the administration.
Types of Knowledge
Nonaka ( 1991 ) identified two types of cognition, viz. ‘tacit ‘ and ‘explicit ‘ cognition. Tacit cognition is seen as a type of cognition that is difficult to formalise and hence hard to pass on to others. Similarly, Armstrong and Mahmud ( 2008 ) described silent cognition as a consequence of larning from experience that affects public presentation in real-world scenes. However, Joina and Lemos ( 2010 ) argue that before silent cognition will be an effectual beginning of competitory advantage, it must be shared and movable within an administration, While expressed cognition is seen as formal and systematic, hence, it can be easy communicated, learned and shared with others ( Rowley ( 1999 ) ; Joia and Lemos ( 2010 ) and Martinez-Canas et Al, 2011 ) . There are four basic rules of cognition creative activity in any administration, which are ‘tacit to tacit, explicit to explicit, tacit to explicit and explicit to tacit ‘ ( Nonaka, 1991 ) . Which can be farther categorized as ‘socialization ‘ , ‘externalization ‘ , ‘combination ‘ and ‘internalization ‘ ( Joia and Lemos, 2010 ) . With these being said, it brings up to what knowledge acquisition is.
What is Knowledge Acquisition?
Knowledge acquisition is an facet of cognition direction which consist of purchasing another administration, engaging persons and renting external cognition ( Joia and Lemos, 2010 ) . One important challenge in cognition direction is how to efficaciously and expeditiously get the needed information ( Nemani, 2010 ) . Knowledge acquisition is the procedure of pull outing relevant cognition from experts and forming this cognition into a clear signifier for everyone who has entree to it to understand ( Feliciano, 2007 ) . Tacit cognition can be acquired via imitation, patterns and observation. This so leads us to the construct of how cognition is acquired.
How is knowledge acquired?
Through coaction and societal procedure, cognition is created, acquired, maintain and shared in an administration ( Alavi and Leidner, 2001 ) . Joia and Lemos ( 2010 ) , propose two processs in cognition acquisition, which are the transition of silent cognition to explicit cognition and the transportation of cognition from the single degree to the group, organizational and inter-organisational degrees. Knowledge can be acquired in different ways. Knowledge is acquired through interactions from both tacit and expressed cognition and non from either tacit or explicit entirely ( Alwis and Hartmann, 2008 ) . This can be seen in what Nonaka ( 1991, pp. 98 ) termed ‘the spiral of cognition ‘ which are ‘tacit-to-tacit ‘ , ‘tacit-to-explicit ‘ , ‘explicit-to-explicit ‘ and ‘explicit-to-tacit ‘ .
How is it managed?
IT-based cognition direction
Information engineering has transformed the universe enormously in recent old ages with new thoughts and inventions jumping out invariably ( Dasgupta and Gupta, 2007 ) . If information engineering is used and managed decently by an administration, it may increase productiveness, quality, better the communicating nexus between clients and providers and besides assist managed the overall work flow of an administration.
Barriers to IT-based cognition direction in Nigeria
Despite all the talk about ‘brainpower ‘ and ‘intellectual capital ‘ ( REF ) few directors understands the thought of knowledge-creating company allow entirely cognize how to pull off it ( Nonaka, 1991 )
Merits and Demerit of cognition direction in Nigeria
Knowledge acquisition in Nigeria SMEs
The chief purpose of this research is to look into the barriers to IT based cognition acquisition in Nigerian SMEs. Therefore, the research worker will follow a assorted method attack to assist accomplish the purpose and aims of this thesis ( Saunders et Al, 2009 ) . The assorted method consists of both qualitative and quantitative by following questionnaire and the interview method. SPSS will be used to analyze and construe the information ( Saunders et Al, 2008 ; 2009 ) .
While it is of import to see ethical issues when transporting out a research, so as to avoid legal deductions or conflicting on other ‘s privateness, the research worker shall seek permission from the persons or administrations as the instance may be before nearing them for information, they shall be given chance to choose out if they wish and besides where necessary, chance to claim namelessness if and when needed ( Creswell, 2003 ) .