WHAT MADE THE AMERICANS EXPAND WESTWARD? Essay, Research Paper
After the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, a big sum of land West of the
original 13 provinces and the Northwest Territory was acquired. The unfastened land,
extra benefits and other bing jobs encouraged Americans to
expand westward. The American people began to recognize that the hereafter of
the state lay in the development of its ain western resources. There were
many grounds that made the people face the grueling and unsafe motion
West, but the primary ground was economic system.
“ Like the Spanish conquistadors before them, the Americans looked beyond
the Mississippi, they saw an unfastened beckoning. Despite the presence of
100s of Indian states with rich and distinguishable civilizations, who had populated
the land for 1000s of years-from the desert of the Southwest and the
grassy prairies of the Great Plains to the high vale of the Rocky
Mountains and the salty beaches of the Pacific Coast-Americans considered the
West to be an empty wilderness. And in less than 50 old ages, from the 1803
purchase of Louisiana Territory to the California gold haste of 1849, the
state would spread out and suppress the West ” ( Herb 3 ) .
The ocean had ever controlled New England & # 8217 ; s involvements and connected it
with the existent universe. Puritanism was still really strong in the North so the
moral integrity of New England was exceeding. Having a really plain population
of English beginning, New England contrasted really much with the other subdivisions.
All this and the fact that they needed to traverse populated provinces in order to
expand west set this subdivision portion from the others ( Leuetenburg and Wishy 37 ) .
New England & # 8217 ; s population compared to other parts was hapless, and the
population growing was even poorer. The trans-Alleghany States by 1820 had a
population of about 2.25 million, while New England had over 1.5 million.
Ten old ages subsequently, western provinces had over 3.5 million with the people
Northwest of the Ohio River entirely totaling 1.5 million.
“ In 1820 the entire population of New England was about to be to the
combined population of New York and New Jersey ; but its addition between 1820
and 1830 was barely three hundred thousand, non much over half that of New
York, and less that of addition of Ohio. If Maine, the turning province of the
group, be excluded, the addition of the whole subdivision was less that of the
frontier province of Indiana ” ( Turner 41 )
Fortunately, new industries help salvage New England from going an
wholly stationary subdivision ( Turner 12 ) . New England & # 8217 ; s transportation industry
became really strong because it had control of impersonal trade during the
European wars. “ Of the exports of the United States in 1820, the statistics
gave to New England about 20 per centum, nine-tenths of which were from
Massachusetts ” ( Turner 11 ) .
Then in a short period of clip, the subdivision witnessed a transportation of the
industrial centre of gravitation from the seaports to the waterfalls, from the
commercialism and pilotage to makers ( Turner 13 ) . “ Water power became
the sites of mill towns, and the industrial revolution which, in the clip
of the trade stoppage, began to reassign industries from the family to the
mill, was quickly carried on ” ( Turner 14 ) . A new category began to develop.
Farmers moved into towns, and their girls began to work in Millss.
Agribusiness, though still really of import to many New England people,
became a worsening involvement. “ By 1830 New England was importing maize and
flour in big measures from other subdivisions. The elevation of cowss and
sheep increased as grain cultivation declined ” ( Turner 46 ) . With the cowss
and sheep raising going more popular, it encouraged out-migration from New
England because it decreased the figure of little farms. “ By the sale of
their lands to wealthier neighbours, the New England husbandmans were able to travel
West with money to put ” ( Turner 15 ) .
The Middle Region, which included New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey,
was a passage zone. It connected the North along with the South and the
E with the West. “ Geographically, they ( the provinces ) lay on the line of
natural paths between the Atlantic on the one side, and the Ohio and the
Great Lakes on the other ” ( Turner 10 ) . Compared to New England, this subdivision
was quickly turning part. By 1830, New York had already equaled the sum
population of full New England combined. Finally, New York and
Pennsylvania would go the most thickly settled provinces in the brotherhood.
About a decennary before 1820, Western New York had showed frontier like
conditions. “ The colonists ( from New England ) felled and burned the forest,
built small towns, and erected Millss, and now, with a excess of
agricultural merchandises, they were enduring from the deficiency of a market and were
demanding transit installations ” ( Leuehtenburg and Wishy 40 ) . With the
already bing paths being undependable and expensive, “ there was a turning
demand for canals? “ ( Turner 32 ) . The Erie and Champlain canals were the
consequence of these demands.
De Witt Clinton saw the economic revolution, which the Erie Canal would
bring. He presented to the legislative assembly the ground that made it practical and
the fiscal program that made it possible. He showed them the vision of the
Hudson River, “ non merely making to the western confines of the province, but
even, by its connexion with Lake Erie, stretching through two thousand stat mis
of navigable lakes and rivers to the really bosom of the inside of the United
States ” ( Turner 32 ) . To him, the Erie Canal was a political every bit good as an
“ As a bond of brotherhood between the Atlantic and western provinces, it may forestall
the taking apart of the American Empire. As an organ of communicating
between the Hudson, the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence, the great lakes of the
North and West, and their tributary rivers, it will make the greatest
inland trade of all time witnessed ” ( Turner 32-33 ) .
By 1825, the great canal system opened. With the lessening in
transit charges, it brought, “ prosperity and a tide of population into
western New York ” ( Turner 34 ) . This led to motion West. “ ? small towns sprang
up along the whole like of canal ; the water-power was utilized for
industries? “ ( Turner 35 ) . “ The Great Lakes pilotage grew steadily, the
Western Reserve increased its population, and the seaport of Cleveland became
a centre of trade ” ( Turner 35 ) .
With all the increased population, existent estate value rose. New York
became the city of the North. Valuess of imports rose. They finally
became leaders of exports. “ The province
of New York had by a shot achieved
economic integrity, and its city at one time became the taking metropolis of the
state ” ( Leuehtenburg and Wishy 49 ) .
The southern provinces, dwelling of Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, the
Carolinas, and Georgia. The innovation of the cotton gin finally led to
the enlargement of the people from the seashore to travel inland. The southern provinces
besides finally grew to be inferior to the other provinces, another ground for
the enlargement due west.
The innovation of the cotton-gin by Eli Whitney in 1793 made the
cultivation of cotton profitable. “ The gap of new land in the West after
1812 extend the country available for cotton cultivation ” ( Westward Expansion and
Regional Differences ) . Now that cotton cultivation was profitable “ ? it was
merely a inquiry of clip when the cotton country, no longer limited to the tide
H2O part, would widen to the inside, transporting bondage with it ” ( Turner
45 ) .
The innovation of the cotton gin came at a really fitting clip for the
“ Already the innovations of Arkwright, Hargreaves, and Cartwright had worked a
revolution in the fabric industries of England, by agencies of the
spinning-jenny, the power-loom, and the mill system, supplying machinery
for the industry of cotton beyond the universe & # 8217 ; s supply ” ( Turner 45 ) .
This demand for cotton pushed all the proprietors of the cotton plantations west
along with all the slaves ( Westward Expansion and Regional Differences ) . “ By
1821 the old South produced one hundred and 17 million lbs, and
five old ages subsequently, one hundred and eighty million lbs ( cotton ) ” ( Turner 46 ) .
But in the following five old ages, late settled sou’-west was catching the
older subdivision. “ By 1834 the sou’-west had distanced the older
subdivision ” ( Turner 147 ) . “ What had occurred was a perennial westbound motion:
the cotton-plant first spread from the seashore to the highlands, and so, by
the beginning of our period, advanced to the Gulf fields, until the part
achieved domination in its production ” ( Turner 47 ) .
But as much of the people moved west, the southern provinces began to turn
inferior to the other subdivisions. “ The westbound migration of its people
checked the growing of the South. It had colonized the new West at the same
clip that the in-between part had been quickly turning in the population and
the consequence was that the proud provinces of the southern seaside was to
numerical lower status ” ( Turner 57 ) .
“ As the motion of capital and population to the interior went on,
wealth was drained from the seashore ” ( Turner 57 ) . As the value of their lands
declined, the people of the south seashore of course sought for an account
and redress to the job ( Turner 61 ) :
“ Alternatively of using a system of scientific agriculture and refilling of the
dirt, there was a inclination for the plantation owners who remained to acquire into debt in
order to add to their ownerships the farms which offered for sale by the
movers. Therefore there was a flow of wealth towards the West of wage for these
new purchases ” ( Turner 61 ) .
It was because of the sudden displacement of labour from farms to towns that
started the due west motion up north. The herding of cowss and sheep took
topographic point of agribusiness. So the proprietors of little farms sold their farms and
moved west. In the in-between part, it was a deficiency of transit and market
that brought along the Erie Canal. After its completion, NY and the remainder of
the in-between part would be connected with the remainder of the inside of the
state. The people began to travel inland along the canal. The innovation of
the cotton gin at a really fitting clip made people of the south push West.
With fabric being a booming industry, people went west to fin available land
to works cotton.
So how were these moves based on economic sciences? Why did the husbandmans of the
north decide to travel west? Was farming profitable any longer? Farming out west
could be even more profitable. “ When wild lands sold for two dollars an
acre, and so, could be occupied by homesteaders about without molestation,
it was certain that colonists would seek them alternatively of paying 20 to
50 dollars and acre for farms that lay non much farther to the
east-particularly when the western lands were more fertile ” ( Turner 73 ) . If
they could happen person to purchase their land, husbandmans would be happier to travel
West to get down a bigger and better farm on more fertile dirt.
The in-between part moved inward along with the canal. With metropoliss like
Cleveland developing inland, and with aid of the canal devising everything
more accessible, colonists moved inward. “ The battle of Baltimore, New York
City and Philadelphia for the lifting commercialism of the inside was powerful
factor in the development of the in-between part ” ( Turner 69 ) . With the lands
being practically free in this huge country, non merely did it pull the
colonist, but it besides furnished the chance for all work forces to hew out their
ain callings ( Turner 68 ) . The unfastened land gave people a opportunity to get down over.
“ The wilderness opened a gate to get away the hapless, the discontented and the
oppressed ” ( Turner 68 ) .
What was the ground behind the motion West of the South? The enlargement
of the South was based on the strong demand for cotton. “ ? the Industrial
Revolution, which made fabric fabricating a large-scale operation, castly
increased the demand for natural cotton ” ( Westward Expansion and Regional
Differences ) . Since the innovation of the cotton gin made the cultivation of
cotton profitable, it was merely a inquiry of happening the land to cultivate
the cotton. All the people had to make was look westward.
What made the people move west? Economicss, land, and chance to
net income were primary factors. With three 1000 stat mis of free and available
land, and the chance to get down a new and better life, and do more money
making it, people packed their bags and moved in.
Herb, Angela M. Beyond the Mississippi: Early Westward Expansion of the
United States. New York: Lodestar Books, 1996.
Leuehtenburg, William E. , and Bernard Wishy, eds Fronteir and Section.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1961.
Turner, Fredrick Jackson. The Frontier in American History. New York: Holt,
Tinehart, and Winston Inc. , 1962
Turner, Fredrick Jackson. Rise of the New West. New York: Harper and
Brothers Publishers, 1966.
Turner, Fredrick Jackson. The United States 1830-1850. New York: W.W.
Norton & A ; Company Inc. , 1965.
“ Westbound Expansion and Regional Differences. ” An Outline of American
History. Downloaded from AOL. March 27, 1999.