At The Congress Of Vienna Essay, Research Paper
The Congress of Vienna was conducted with the purpose of restoring the territorial divisions of Europe at the terminal of the Napoleonic Wars. This in bend lead accomplishing a balance of power among the states of Europe, which brought peace and order to Europe. To carry through this diplomatic negotiations, the rule of a merely equilibrium was adopted and the redrawing of boundaries of Europe to command the enlargement of France was made. However, the aims were achieved to a limited extent since states self-interest affected the colony of boundaries in Europe.
Each Great Power, Britain, France, Russia, Prussia, and Austria came to the Congress of Vienna with a preset thought of what each of their ain states were to accomplish. Lord Casthereagh represented Britain at the Congress, adopted the thought of a merely equilibrium from William Pitt. Casthereagh believed that the redrawing of state s boundaries in Europe should reflect equality in footings of size and measure of land, when compared to the other powers. Therefore, the term merely meant equity and equilibrium meant the common point of intersection in which all the powers were equal in territorial land. However, Britain s opportunisms got in the manner of this thought. Castlereagh believed the first colony of Europe should non endanger Britain s tremendous and vulnerable imperium, and which whom international trade could be pursued without hinderance, as an progressively industrialised state had to populate. Thus, Britain focused on their naval domination to acquire this consequence. She obtained the Dutch settlement of the Cape of Good Hope and Ceylon for eastern trade paths, Malta and the Ionian Islands for control of the Mediterranean, Holigoland for the control of the North Sea, and Trinidad to keep trade within South America. Of these, the strategic islands were deserving the most in footings of value, trade, and control of the waterways. British merchandisers in South America persuaded Castlereagh non to give topographic points like Demerara to the Netherlands since 15 million had been invested into these topographic points. Therefore, taking this into history, they kept these topographic points, organizing British Guiana. To keep the thought of a merely equilibrium Casthereagh gave up some districts to expose to the other powers that they were non deriving these islands for opportunism. He even wrote that it was non the concern of England to roll up trophies, but to reconstruct Europe to peaceful wonts. In respect to the eighteenth century diplomatic negotiations and merely equilibrium Britain compromised on the same districts. This is why Britain and France did non come into struggle in the Treaty of Vienna in 1815 despite there have being opportunisms in certain districts.
The Czar Alexander I represented Russia at the Congress of Vienna. He regarded himself as the exclusive person of his province and planner of his policy. Peoples had hoped that he would see the purposes and involvements of the people of Europe, and be less concerned with his state s territorial additions. This did non go on. Russia was so steadfast on achieving Poland, that Alexander had a 600 000 work forces army out of 1 000 000 situated in Poland. The other Great Powers did non desire to be undermined by allowing Russia attain all of Poland because they would potentially be a menace to the remainder of Europe. With Britain holding a strong naval forces, and France holding the following best land ground forces to Russia s, a Third Alliance was formed and prevented Russia from taking Poland. As a via media, Poland was subdivided and Russia received the portion of the Poland, which came to be Congress Poland. Despite Russia holding wanted Poland, the other conciliators at Vienna looked out for the involvements of Europe and insured that Russia would non go excessively powerful and influential.
ancellor Metternich represented Austria at the Congress of Vienna. In the involvements of Austria, Metternich was autocratic and tyrannizing during territorial determinations at the Congress. Austria knew their power was stealing and that they were regarded by the other conciliators as a power improbable to stay a prima power. Austria was besides remembered by the other powers as the state that had non taken a taking portion in subverting Napoleon s imperium. Thus Metternich strived at the Congress of a cardinal European power base controlled by Austria. He insisted that Austria have control of the Italian provinces so that Habsburg power remains influential over Europe and that peace and a good authorities in the peninsula would non happen without this. Sing their opportunisms, Austria wanted control of the German alliance. When the boundaries were settled, Austria was upset that she had to portion the Confederation with Prussia. Thus she demanded that she be compensated for her lower status to Germany by being awarded districts in Northern Italy. Austria was more concerned with keeping her ain power than seeking to convey peace to Europe.
Preussen at the Congress was less concerned with territorial additions, but with recovering her power and prestigiousness that she had lost at Jena in 1806 in a conflict against France. Though Prussia had made a singular recovery from this licking, she was still regarded as a weak province. The concluding colony at the Congress of Vienna allotted the district Posen and Thorn to Prussia. This was a successful addition for Prussia because Posen and Thorn were the best agribusiness and agrarian land. It was three-fifths of Saxony ; Swedish Pomerania, the Rhinelands and Saar. Besides two-thirds of the population was located in this country. Prussia was more captive on compromising than seeking to achieve land, and so as a consequence, she did follow the purposes of the conciliators by trying to restore a balance of power among the states of Europe.
Talleyrand, who represented France, tried to pacify the powers. He besides tried to turn out to the Great Powers that Louis XVIII could be trusted and should hence be restored to the Gallic throne. To hold this done, Talleyrand created the Sacred Act of Legitimacy, which stated that rightful swayers should be restored to their legitimate thrones. The conciliators agreed to this Act since Napoleon had left Europe in shambles, with some countries holding no swayer. Therefore, the swayers were restored to their thrones throughout Europe, in efforts to keep peace and control of provinces. Despite Talleyrand desiring to derive back some countries France had lost, he compromised with the other powers in order to make the colony of Europe.
The conciliators together agreed on one thing & # 8211 ; France s imperium had to be contained. They regarded France as a state that had purposes since the seventeenth century, which caused her to be in a continual aggression of wars. To see that there was peace in Europe, buffer provinces were created. These provinces were set up around France to command the Empire. The Kingdom of Piedmont and Sardinia was created, Prussia s boundary lines were extended towards France to give her control of the Rhine and the Kingdom of Netherlands joined the Belgians and Dutch together. Austria was awarded Northern Italian provinces so that there would be some Habsburg influence over the Gallic Bourbon monarchy, but besides to see that France would be unchanged.
Despite the selfishness of each state have affected each representative at the Congress of Vienna, the conciliators overcome this barrier and determined the colony of Europe in the involvement of Europe. The Treaty of Vienna in 1815 kept this balance of power which allowed the peace and order in Europe to stay undisturbed for at least 40 old ages.